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ISSN 2047-2854 (PRINT) 2047-2862 (ONLINE)

9th International Conference on Business and Economic Development (ICBED) 2020

Governing and managing communal land as a resource in South Africa: A case of selected communal property associations in Vhembe district, Limpopo province

Mokoko P. Sebola, and Malemela A. Mamabolo

University of Limpopo, South Africa


This study investigated the governance and management of communal land resources through Communal Property Associations (CPA’s) in South Africa using the case of Vhembe district municipality in the Limpopo Province. As at the time of the study Vhembe District had 57 registered CPA’s managing the land on behalf of the beneficiary communities. The study used a qualitative research approach thereby employing a semi structured interview questionnaire to collect data from targeted respondents. A sample of 7 CPA’s were selected from a total sample of 57 CPA’s in the district in terms of geographical locations of the West (Tshivhula and Leshivha), central (Mulambwane), east (Tshifefe and Manavhela) and the south direction (Mongalo, Machaba). A sample of respondents was between 2 and 3 per CPA which included a group interviews with Chairperson, Deputy Chairperson and Treasurer or Secretary. From the data collected the study concluded that the land managed by the CPA’s in Vhembe district faces serious challenges of poor governance, poor support from the government, poor revenue generation by farms or land given back to the community and the high maintenance costs. The study concluded that the adverse governance and management problems of land acquired by the CPA are likely to improve if proper governance principles can be enforced with government effectively monitoring the system for success.

An analytical study of the determinants of foreign investment in Saudi Arabia "Saudi Vision 2030"

Sally El-Awady, Sarah Al-Mushayqih and Ebtehal Al-Oudah

Department of Economics, College of Business & Economics Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered one of the main challenges faced by economies. It is also one of the main factors that help develop the national economy since it contributes to increasing GDP growth rates in the host country, developing technical staff, creating jobs, transferring modern technology, and supporting competitive capacities. According to the Saudi Vision 2030, the ratio of FDI to GDP will be increased from 3.8% to the global average of 5.7%. The research problem is that there is a gap between the extent of current and hoped-for FDI. The research paper will discuss the following objectives: Exploring the current investment environment in KSA, shedding light on current legislations that are attractive for investment, identifying the most important determinants of investment in KSA, and testing the relationship between FDI inflows and economic factors affecting them. The statistical descriptive analysis method was adopted, and a standard model was analyzed using the E-Views program. Secondary data were collected from the General Organization for Statistics, World Bank publications, and the UNCTAD database. The research hypotheses related to the existence of a significant relationship between the volume of FDI with GDP and the current investment laws were tested. In conclusion, the most important determinants of investment in KSA which have an impact are GDP growth rate, domestic investments, and natural gas reserves. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between government expenditure and inflation rate on the volume of FDI, which negatively affects the deficit of the state budget and the productive efficiency of different sectors. Also, the researchers have been recommended that there is a need to prepare the current investment environment to increase the attraction of FDI in KSA in order to achieve the Saudi Vision 2030 by increasing and diversifying GDP, developing programs to support local investment, reducing the government expenditure and the inflation rate, developing controls obliging foreign companies to transfer technology, train labor, and develop controls to take into account the cleanliness of the environment in the activities of FDI in the country.

Forensic accounting skills and tax evasion detection in Lagos State, Nigeria

Asaolu, Taiwo O., Akinkoye, Ebenezer Y. and Akinadewo, Israel S.

Department of Management & Accounting Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria


The study investigated the application of Forensic Accounting Skills on Tax Evasion Detection in Lagos State, Nigeria. Data were soured with the aid of structured questionnaire administered on respondents. The sample size was 301 comprising forensic accountants and Lagos State Internal Revenue officials. Multiple regression analysis results show a positive nexus between Forensic Accounting skills and tax evasion detection as the t-calculated of 4.579 is greater than the t-tabulated of 0.000 at 5% significance level. The forensic accounting skills proxied by Detection, Prevention, Deterrence Skills (DPDS); Forensic Audit, Investigation, Interviewing Skills (FAIIS); Arbitration, Mediation, Litigation Skills (AMLS); Honesty, High Integrity, Communication Skills (HHICS) indicated by the individual level of significance of 0.000, 0.054, 0.054 and 0.122 respectively which are less than 5% acceptable level of significance also shows that there is a significant positive relationship in the effect of Forensic Accounting on Tax Evasion Detection. The finding indicates the existence of tax evasion and that the application of forensic accounting will drastically leads to the reduction. Thus, government will have access to more revenue in meeting up with its constitutional responsibilities. The study recommends among others of the need for the government to institutionalize forensic accounting in the country for effective tax administration.

The choice of coalition governments for promotion of national unity in Africa: Does the model work for unity and political stability?

Kananelo M. Sekatle, and Mokoko P. Sebola

University of Limpopo, South Africa


The purpose of this paper is to argue that coalition government is not able to achieve peace and stability in African governments as envisaged through political solutions. The paper therefore evaluates the effective use of the coalition model in political stability and promotion of national unity. The paper is conceptual in approach and it uses a desktop method. A coalition is a group of organisations or political groupings that come together for the purpose of gaining more influence and power than the individual organisations can achieve on their own. There are numerous African countries that have adopted the coalition government model for political compromise and stability in their government. The intention is to find out whether the model is practically effective because the model has both advantages and disadvantages. The paper concludes that coalition model is not suitable for the African context. It has shown to fail in numerous countries where it was tried.

Market orientation practices in Nigerian insurance companies

Caroline Osuagwu

School of Business & Entrepreneurship American University of Nigeria, Nigeria


Market orientation is the business idea that situates the customer, consumer, client, or relevant audience as the centre of business activities. It is one of the important management strategies that may lead to the achievement of organizational efficiency and effectiveness. It has relevance for all sectors in an economy, including goods and services businesses (including insurance services). This paper examined, empirically, the market orientation practices in a sample of Nigerian insurance companies. Using a mix of qualitative and quantitative research approaches, the research sought to provide insight with regard to the Market Orientation practices of insurance companies operating in Nigeria. Specifically, data were collected from a purposive sample of insurance companies in Nigeria. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The research found that Nigerian insurance companies emphasized market orientation issues to reasonable extents. The paper discussed the research findings with respect to relevant literature and experience, concludes that market orientation in Nigerian insurance companies was reasonably emphasized, and makes suggestions for further research in related areas.

Gen Z´s altruism and performance values link to private label preference: first evidence from a German drugstore sample

Joern Redler1 and Joachim Hurth2

School of Business, Mainz University of Applied Sciences, Mainz, Germany1

Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Wolfsburg, Germany2


The purpose of this research is to examine the link between Gen Z´s values and private label acceptance. It aims at better understanding future generations´ openness to retailer´s private label brands, a factor highly relevant for channel strategies. Based on survey data, a sample of 3,194 consumers was explored. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used (a) to examine consumer perceptions of private labels, (b) to understand private label usage, and (c) to link Gen Z´s values to customer evaluations and reported buying. The findings indicate that Gen Z consumers are characterized by the value factors (I) altruism, (II) performance orientation, (III) hedonism, and (IV) sense of family. Further, the factors (I) and (II) were identified to be particularly relevant for private label brand positioning. The paper is unique as it is the first empirical investigation of Gen Z´s private label brand preference in the context of retailing and distribution channel strategy.

Socio-economic impact of shopping centres in Gauteng, South Africa

B F van Niekerk and C E Cloete

Department of Construction Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa


Purpose: Shopping centres have become an integral part of the built environment in South Africa, in many cases causing marked socio-economic effects, both positive and negative. The present study attempts to provide a better understanding of the multi-faceted effects that shopping centres manifest in the community through providing an overview of the socio-economic impact of shopping centres in Gauteng, South Africa. Methodology: Due to the complex nature of socio-economic systems, the method selected to conduct the data analysis is the thematic analysis approach. Thematic analysis is a process used to identify the underlying themes of the data that has been collected by utilising a software program (Nvivo 12 Pro) to assist with the thematic analysis process. Upon identifying the underlying themes present within the data, initial codes and keywords identified were then organised into broader themes. To identify prominent themes the keywords are grouped into categories, and a ranking is given based on the frequency which the categories appear in the sample literature. Results: The top three socio-economic impacts of shopping centres on their communities were found to be employment (jobs created), the improvement of local infrastructure. and the additional income generated in the local community. Originality: Although a number of studies have investigated various socio-economic impacts of shopping centres, the use of thematic analysis offers a systematic perspective in this topic. Practical implications: Developers of shopping centres should justify the merits of proposed developments by emphasising the effect on the creation of jobs, improvement of local infrastructure and its environmental sustainability and the additional income generated in the relevant communities.

Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in Nigeria: any causal relationship?

Ekone Francis Azeakpono1 and Amaghionyeodiwe Lloyd2

Dept. of Economics and Actuarial Sciences Crescent University, Abeokuta, Nigeria1

Department of Business and Economics York College, City University of New York, USA2


This study examined the effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1990 to 2016. It further investigated the direction of causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in Nigeria. This was with a view to providing information on the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in Nigeria within the period of the study. Data collected was analysed using both descriptive analysis and econometric technique, which included unit root, correlation, co-integration, regression, and granger causality tests. The result showed that although renewable energy consumption and economic growth increased between 1990 and 2016 in Nigeria, renewable energy consumption had no significant positive impact on economic growth in Nigeria. Furthermore, there was no causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth in Nigeria during the period of study. The study concluded that renewable energy consumption exerted an insignificant negative impact on economic growth in Nigeria. We recommend that investing in renewable energy should be encouraged and enhanced as this may be a way to reduce domestic fossil fuel consumption or to meet increasing energy demand without an increase of domestic fuel consumption to increase fuel exports and thus for higher revenues.

The contribution of airport retail to total airport revenues

Sumayyah Akoodie and C. E. Cloete

Department of Construction Economics, University of Pretoria Pretoria, South Africa


Purpose: Airports globally are facing pressure on income from aeronautical fees and are placing increasing importance on non-aeronautical sources of revenue. The largest contributions to non-aeronautical revenues are from retail, parking, and property sources. Airport operators generally aim to increase non-aeronautical revenue to fifty percent of total revenues, to compensate for the risk of a decline aeronautical revenues. This study analyses the change in airport revenues for the past decade and the correlating growth of airport retail income of the Airports Company of South Africa (ACSA), which is the largest airport authority in Africa. Methodology: An analysis of the financial statements and integrated reports of the Airports Company of South Africa (ACSA), was undertaken for the (financial years 2010/11 to 2018/19. Findings: The results indicate that although non-aeronautical revenues of ACSA have been increasing during the period of analysis, its contribution to total revenue still lags slightly behind aeronautical revenues. A strong positive correlation was found to exist between other non-aeronautical sources of revenue and airport retail growth. Practical implications: ACSA can further increase its total revenues by expanding the scope of retail operations at the nine airports under its jurisdiction, to approximate an equal contribution to aeronautical revenues. It is recommended that further research be undertaken to extend the scope of the study by increasing the period of analysis and by including other airport owners and operators in South Africa.

Do legal origins impact infant mortality? Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa

Nourhan Hashish

Sorbonne School of Economics Université Paris 1 – UFR 02 Sciences Économiques, Paris


This study investigates the possible link between the legal origins of 27 sub-Saharan African countries and the health status of the population proxied by infant mortality rates (IMR). IMR is broken down into three categories: neonatal mortality, post-neonatal mortality, and infant mortality. The data is collected through the Demographic Health Survey DHS. Further corresponding geospatial covariates are being used to implement a Regression Discontinuity design (RD) depicting the impact of civil and common law on the three categories of IMR. The RD framework entails comparing the child mortality of the individuals close to the borders of another country with a different legal origin. Additional regression tables are estimated to compare their results with that of the RD. Both the RD and the table results provide enough evidence that post-neonatal and infant mortality are more abundant under civil law regimes than under common law ones signaling at better general health conditions under the latter. However, neonatal mortality does not seem to be impacted by legal origins

Factors influencing the trust-level of Hungarian negotiators in cross-cultural business contexts

Julia Szoke

Department of International Studies and Communication Széchenyi István University, Győr, Hungary


Trust is considered to be an essential element of effective business relationships. However, it is not easy to build trust as it varies from culture to culture which aspects influence trust-level. Therefore, this paper discusses the importance of trust in cross-cultural business contexts from the viewpoint of Hungarian negotiators, using data deriving from a two-phase research. In the first phase of the research, a questionnaire survey was used to assess the importance of trust in cross-cultural business contexts, and then structured interviews were conducted to reveal the factors influencing the level of trust. The findings provide insights about the role of trust as well as the factors affecting it in cross-cultural business contexts to shed light on the possible consequences of the low level of trust to business success. The paper also draws up some conclusions and recommendations in general as well as for representatives of companies doing business with Hungarian partners.

Trade structure as an enabler of economic growth in Africa

Roseline Tapuwa Karambakuwa and Ronney Ncwadi

Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa


The role of trade structure in determination of economic growth has not been empirically given as much attention as trade openness and trade volume. This is despite the fact that trade openness and trade volume are affected by other influences arising from nontrade growth factors. Hence, we present the role played by trade structure in enabling economic growth in Africa. Using a panel data regression with fixed effects, we regress Gross Domestic Product growth against trade structure variables and other standard explanatory variables for eighteen African countries. Trade structure consists of concentration of trade, intra-industry trade and number of exported goods. To measure concentration of trade, the Hirschman Herfindahl (HHI) index is used while the Grubel-Lloyd (1975) index of intra-industry trade is computed to measure intra-industry trade. Other standard explanatory variables included are gross capital formation, inflation and population growth. We conclude that for African countries, trade structure positively determines economic growth since the variables intraindustry trade and number of exported goods are positively related to Gross Domestic Product. We also conclude that gross capital formation and population growth can lead to economic growth as they are positively related to Gross Domestic Product. Inflation is negatively related to Gross Domestic Product. African countries have a high probability of realising economic growth if they focus on increasing the number of exported products, intra-industry trade, domestic investment and cautiously allowing for population growth. Population growth needs to be treated with caution as it should be sustainable, considering resource availability. It is important for the countries to keep inflation as low as possible as it retards growth. The paper makes original contribution towards empirical literature on the impact of trade structure on economic growth in African countries, an area which has been largely ignored in the past.

Tax evasion detection in Nigeria: Analysis of the specific forensic accounting techniques used

Akinadewo, Israel S., Akinkoye and Ebenezer Y.

Department of Management & Accounting Obafemi Awolowo University, Osun State, Nigeria


The study investigated the specific forensic accounting techniques used in the detection of tax evasion in Nigeria. The study used a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire, prompting experts’ opinion on the type or the combination of the tools of forensic accounting applied in carrying out tax evasion assignments. Krejcie & Morgan (1970) formula was adopted to determine the sample size of 301 from the population of 1,387, comprising forensic accounting practitioners and tax officials of Lagos State, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics like mean, standard deviation and percentages were applied for data analysis. The study reveals that all the identified 13 forensic accounting techniques were put into use but with diverse opinion. The study also finds out that Benford’s Law, Identifying Anomalies’ Document Review, Revenue Approach, Business Intelligence, Revenue Approach, Trend Analysis, Net Worth Comparative Method, Data Mining Tools, and Expenditure Approach, among others, were rated as being frequently used. The findings show that there is no agreement as to the specific tools to be adopted for tax evasion detection and no record of it included in the reports to government. The study however, established the use of different types of techniques among the practitioners. Thus, the study recommends that the practitioners should include in the report of their tax evasion engagement to the government, the forensic accounting techniques, or the combination thereof, used along with the respective results.

Factors influencing profitability of conventional banks as measured by Tobin’s q: evidence from banking sector of Pakistan

Jo-Ann Rolle1, Gobind M. Herani2 and Bushra Javed3

Dean, School of Business Medgar Evers College, The City University, New York, USA1

Dean, Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education, Paqkistan2

Institute of Business Management, Karachi, Pakistan3


Financial sector is the key player to enhance sustainable economic growth. Commercial banks play an important role to improve the performance of the financial sector of the economy and their profitability is intricately connected to the soundness of the entire economy. The purpose of this study is to determine the internal determinants (bank specific) and external determinants (macro- economic) of profitability. In this regard, the study adopted quantitative research design by using the panel data of 17 commercial banks of Pakistan over the period of 2014-2018. Internal factors analyzed in this study were Liquidity, Size and Capital Adequacy. While external factors were Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Inflation. The data was analyzed by using simple OLS regression and Tobin’s Q ratio. The analysis showed that GDP has significant impact on profitability. However, inflation has no impact on the profitability. Tobin’s Q ratio of most of the banks are increasing which depicted their equilibrium position. Based on the findings, the study recommended some policies that will encourage banks to reduce credit risk and minimize their liquidity holdings. Moreover, Government should take the proper initiatives to enhance the confidence of investors towards stock market.

Health Related Not-For-Profit Organizations: Time to Rewrite

Dennis Fox, Elene Evelyn and Rosemary Williams

Department of Accounting School of Business, Medgar Evers College City University of New York, USA


This paper examines Not-for-Profit organizations, specifically those representing diseases. An organization that is formed for profit conducts its affairs solely for the purpose of earning profits to benefit its stakeholders. In contrast, the organization that is formed as not-for-profit, does not earn profits for its stakeholders, but use the earnings or donated funds to pursue the organization’s objectives and to continue operation. Given this definition, one must not be confused about the profitmaking motives of not-for-profit organizations. These businesses generate substantial earnings from their charitable causes, yet they do not pay income taxes. Are these not-for-profit organizations adequately using the contributed funds for the purpose and mission of the not-for-profit organizations? This paper attempts to answer the question by examining the use of funds by four health related notfor-profit organizations through analysis of their financial statements. The paper will assess their operating philosophy and will look at their relationship with the medical and pharmaceutical industries. This paper will identify if there is a need for changes to the not-for-profit laws. The monetary connection between these four not-for-profit organizations and the medical and pharmaceutical industries are problematic. Performance of the analyses highlights that salaries and benefits account for the largest expenditure within the not-for-profit organizations. Research is a significant expense for these four not-for-profit organizations, and it is imperative for it to be clearly shown or reflected on their financial statements and not be included or embedded in other expenses. Further investigations on the management and compensation levels of these organizations must be undertaken.

M moderated mediation model linking error management culture to organizational performance

Bushra Javed1, Tariq Jalees2, Gobind M. Herani3 and Jo-Ann Rolle4

Institute of Business Management, Karachi, Pakistan1

PAF Kiet, Karachi, Pakistan2

Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education, Pakistan3

Dean, Business Administration, MED, The City University, New York, USA4


Errors are ubiquitous in organizational life and adversely affects organizational performance, creates negative publicity, damage organizational image and customer satisfaction. In view of its importance, we have developed a moderated mediated model to analyze the impact of organizational error management culture and organizational performance by extending error management and share cognition theory. The newly developed model was tested in the service industry of Pakistan. The sample size of the study was 300 employees with a response rate of 96%. The data was collected through a web-based questionnaire. The constructs used in the study were adapted from earlier established scales and measures. Smart PLS was used to test the structural model. The results show that error management culture has a significant positive effect on organizational performance. Moreover, we found organizational learning from errors and innovative work behavior mediates the association of error management culture and organizational performance. Furthermore, we found that perceived psychological safety moderated the direct relationship between organizational learning from errors and error management culture. The current study has significant implications for management, theory, and research. For instance, perceived psychological safety in earlier studies has been used as a mediator while we have used it as a moderator. In addition, we tested multi mediation (i.e., organizational learning from errors and innovative work behaviour) to empirically validate the relationship of error management culture and organizational performance

The inevitability of financial risks in businesses and how to overcome them: Saudi Arabia in focus

Nasser Mohammed Lasloom

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia


Financial risk is made up of potential volatility or changes in earnings that differ from participants' expectations and estimates of these values. This can have both positive and negative impacts depending on the preferences of risk consumers. The investment climate of a nation, especially for developing economies has a great role to play in the level of financial risks that an organization can be exposed to. Even if the best company in the world hires the best managers obtainable in a field to run a company in a country where the stakes are high as regards risk, the company will most likely show signs of financial risks that may just be inevitable. This study carefully analyzed financial risks in businesses with a focus on efficient management in a developing country like Saudi Arabia, using a qualitative research technique. The research provides additional contributions to discuss on financial risks in corporate organizations by not only highlighting the various types of risks applicable but demonstrated how they apply in Saudi Arabia.

TOE Model: Adoption of Block Chain

Mai. H. Haroun1, Nermin Gohar1 and Hany Ayaad Hanna2

Logistics of Supply Chain Department, College of International Transport and Logistics Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, Egypt1

Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport Alexandria, Egypt & University Strathclyde, College of Engineering, Glasgow.UK2


Block chain has numerous benefits such as decentralization, persistency, anonymity, and auditability. Although a number of studies focus on using the block chain technology in various application aspects, there is not a specific previous study focus on the block chain technology in both technological context and business organizations through the supply chain flows. Therefore, this paper empathizes how using the technological theories and block chain technologies through the supply chain will affect it as a whole; in addition to such adoption is very rare to be represented especially in developing countries as this part is fulfilled by our paper research. A number of 427 respondents were included in the questionnaire analysis which were collected from employees of supply chain and logistics companies. After conducting regression analysis and SEM, it was observed that reducing complexity and lowering supply chain investment costs associated with traditional supply chain transactions were some of the key drivers for block chain adoption, as well as a desire to benefit from enhanced compatibility and regulatory support. However, achieving security is considered as the main and most important driver

Motives and barriers of Airbnb users: Findings from mixed-methods approach

Ghada Mohammed A. Ahmed, Prof Mohamed A. Ragheb and Passent Ibrahim Tantawi

Arab Academy for Science, Technology & Maritime Transport Alexandria, Egypt


Purpose: This study aims to investigate motives and barriers for Egyptian users to use Airbnb “as a platform of peer-to-peer accommodation instead of hotels” and how it affects the overall attitude towards Airbnb, behavioral intentions and actual usage of Airbnb. Design/Methodology: A sequential mixed methods approach was adopted in this study and a comprehensive research model was adapted from both literature and results of qualitative phase and then tested via an online questionnaire. Results/Findings: The findings revealed that motives: price, home benefits, privacy, and online reviews significantly explained the overall attitude towards Airbnb. In addition, the main barriers found were perceived risk and distrust, which can predict the overall attitude. Furthermore, from subjective norms, only social influence can predict behavioral intention to use Airbnb. Theoretical and practical implications: This study contributes theoretically to the current literature by providing meaningful insights into the main motives of choosing Airbnb as accommodation other than traditional accommodations like hotels. Moreover, it deepens understanding regarding the barriers of not using Airbnb. The findings include several practical implications for industry. Hence, this study’s conceptual effort provided a ‘big’ picture of how Airbnb consumers arrive at choosing (or not choosing) Airbnb for their trip. Additionally, the analytic effort of this study provided a holistic evaluation of the role of each motive and barrier. One critical question in this case is whether marketers should allocate an equal amount of resources to each variable or not. By assessing the importance of each variable, the researcher attempted to clarify the comparative importance of each variable in predicting purchase intentions and decision to use Airbnb. Originality /value: This study fills the gap between the motives and barriers of Airbnb and their effect on overall attitude, behavioral intention and actual usage. Most previous studies focused only on the effect of motives and barriers on behavioral intentions without taking into consideration the actual usage. Similarly, previous studies focused on western contexts. However, this study focuses on one of the developing countries in the Middle East, Egypt, which has many travellers who are already using Airbnb. This study is considered one of the pioneer studies in this topic.

Inclusive entrepreneurship: A critical look at inclusion of persons with disabilities

JoAnn Rolle1, Jacqueline Kisato2, Patricia Rock3 and Jacqueline Winstanley4

Dean, Business School, Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, USA1

Kenyatta University, Kenya2

BlueSuite Solutions, Inc., USA3

Universal Inclusion, United Kingdom4


There have been many definitions of inclusion as it relates to the underserved and economic empowerment through entrepreneurship, but few of these definitions have focused specifically on persons with disabilities. Purpose of Research- Many studies have looked at increasing economic empowerment through entrepreneurship for women, minorities, youth, seniors, immigrants, and rural residents throughout literature. The gap however is that the lumping of all these categories has led to the overlooking of specific challenges faced by persons with disabilities. This oversight on economic inclusivity has been magnified especially during the Corona virus pandemic. Design/ Methodology- This study reviews literature in search of evidence to document programs, projects, and policies used in both developed and developing countries to address the challenges of inclusive entrepreneurship for all. The paper explores several entrepreneurial studies on inclusivity of business ecosystems in UK, USA, Sub Saharan Africa, and India and highlights public-private partnerships and impact investment as it relates to challenges in increasing inclusivity in businesses. Results/Findings- It was evident that, while there are many government policies and programs to support entrepreneurship in the USA,UK, Sub Saharan Africa and India, limited empirical studies have been documented to evaluate the impact of these policies on entrepreneurship for persons with disabilities. Some of the challenges cited in literature included gender gap, cost of doing business and the likelihood to be funded to launch a business, as common dominant factors reported on the issue of inclusion. Practical implications and Conclusions-The authors find that there is much more empirical research and analyses warranted in the study of entrepreneurship inclusion and empowerment of the underserved especially for persons with disabilities and continue reviewing literature and use quantitative and qualitative research such that additional programs, projects and policies may be developed to serve all inclusively.

Coworking spaces: An exploratory study to identify the challenges and different business models in Egypt

Safaa Maher, Passent Tantawi and Mohamed A. Ragheb

Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Egypt Graduate School of Business


The focus of this research is in the area of co-working spaces. Such a study is important in order to enhance the understanding of the growth of co-working spaces in Egypt. Coworking spaces as startups have seen wide expansions worldwide in conjunction with the evolution of the shared economy, start-ups, and entrepreneurial projects and the labor market trends of freelancers and part-time employees. The research approach adopted in this paper is a qualitative approach. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of coworking space managers or founders in Cairo and Alexandria, the main two cities in Egypt which have the largest number of coworking spaces. The interviews aimed to explore their practices, choice of business model adopted among several ones to generate revenue and the challenges faced in running the coworking space. Thus, the questions focused on asking the interviewees to explain the business model adopted by the space as well as the services and networking they provide in addition to the challenges they face in running the business successfully. The findings in this paper revealed that coworking spaces in Egypt are constantly modifying their business model to adjust to market conditions in order to achieve profitability. Thereby, coworking spaces are still in their infancy stage and are subject to many changes and evolutions to meet the market trends. Furthermore, the financial viability and profitability are at stake and founders are adjusting their services and pricing accordingly. Among other results, high employee turnover was highlighted frequently by the managers during their interviews. The academic contribution relies in adding to the coworking space literature with respect to challenges faced in developing countries. The practical implications of this research offer actionable knowledge for coworking space managers and founders to provide the services and activities that would attract their target user and increase their loyalty to the space since users such as small companies have different needs from freelancers and part-time employees.

Career forms: Organizational, gig, and in-between

Sambhavi Lakshminarayanan and Simon Best

Department of Business Administration School of Business Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, USA


The nature of business-related careers, and particularly organizational ones, has changed drastically over the last many years. Non-traditional careers of the past are rapidly becoming the norm. Classic career management literature focused on managing and being successful in organizational careers. However, the environment has changed, and researchers have pointed out that careers now can be viewed as being organizational, semi-organizational and gig-economy related. The common thread through the new career forms is the increased responsibility on individuals to manage their careers. In particular, the gig-economy points to a de-linking of organizations with people doing organizational work, by the latter being viewed as independent contractors rather than employees. In this paper, we present prior work on career forms and models, both within and outside of organizational boundaries. Further, we propose a theoretical framework to view these career forms in the context of current organizational settings.

Can We Afford It? The association between financial aid and time to completion in Accounting Higher Education in South Africa: A literature review

Riley Carpenter and Lily Roos

College of Accounting, University of Cape Town, South Africa


Internationally, research has been conducted on factors affecting students’ academic success as measured by time to degree completion. Investigating these factors is important given the role of higher education in the South African context. Astin’s Input-Environment-Outcome (I-E-O) model was used to analyse the factors affecting students’ academic success. These included key input and environmental factors identified in prior literature such as race, gender, prior academic results, English proficiency, high school quality, family income, first-generation educational status, integration into higher education institutions, student employment and financial aid. To date, South African research on financial aid has concentrated on how financial aid improves access to higher education, however, there is very little information on how it effects on-time degree completion. This paper thus identifies a gap in the role of financial aid in assisting timely graduation and examines this phenomenon in relation to accountancy students in South Africa

The relationship between ineffective methods of applying quality management and functional combustion in Arab Universities

Hoda Ahmed Ibraheem Abdelnabi1, Faten Ahmed Abobaker1 and Khaled Mohamed ELBadawey2

Arab East Collages, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia1

Taif University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia2


The study aimed to shed light on the relationship between the ineffective use of quality and functional combustion in Saudi universities. The study used the descriptive-analytical methods, the researchers used the SPSS program for analysis. Higher education institutions seek to apply quality standards to achieve excellence in education and research services and community service, in order to obtain academic accreditation Universities are quick to meet the requirements of accreditation, to achieve these goals, the biggest burden falls on the faculty members "update programs, courses, academic guidance, Also conduct scientific research, attend conferences and provide community service in many forms such as workshops, training programs, consultations " these requirements are the core of the accreditation process and are also closely related to the work of the faculty member, However, the lack of good organization and overload of burden leads to underperformance and outstanding achievement in any of the scientific or research fields. This leads us to enter the stage of " functional combustion, "a state of intellectual, emotional, and physical exhaustion as a result of overwork. So, the problem of the study appears in the main question what is the relationship between the ineffective methods of quality management, functional combustion in the Arab universities? The results of the study showed there are very negative aspects of the ineffective application of quality at the university, which is reflected by everyone who works in the university field at the level of Arab universities, so led to reducing the important scientific role of the faculty member to become a primary preparatory of quality reports which take all time. The researchers' recommendations university must study the phenomenon of job combustion and to work out their causes and devise appropriate solutions to mitigate its spread.

Positive and negative effects facing university education by allowing foreign universities to invest and open branches in KSA - Vision 2030 )Case Study Arab East Colleges & Qassim University)

Hoda Ahmed Ibraheem Abdelnabi1 and Sally Elawady2

Arab East Collages, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia1

College of Business& Economic, Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia2


The aim of the study is to shed light on the negative and positive effects facing university education as a result of allowing foreign universities to open branches in KSA - Vision 2030, which represents a challenge for the private and governmental university education sector. Hence the main research question arises, "What are the effects of encouraging investment by foreign universities in the Kingdom on local universities in Saudi Arabia? " . Design/methodology/approach: - The study used the descriptive-analytical method, and questionnaires were distributed to the community sample of employees of the Eastern Colleges of Graduate Studies and the Qaseem University the researchers used E-view program for analysis. Findings:- The study reached several results, most important among which are the positive effects of allowing foreign universities to open branches in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, achieving a qualitative shift in the path of Saudi universities on the basis of empowerment, excellence, quality, and contributing to the development of the educational and research process, raising the efficiency of the Saudi university education system and raising the efficiency of Expenditure, the development of financial resources for universities, and human capabilities, the presence of negative effects of students ’orientation to foreign universities and their reluctance to enter local universities, researchers recommend the allocation of a budget-oriented interested in the innovation, creativity, and scientific research. Activating the partnership between ministry of labor, higher education, and vocational training institutions. Encouraging the private sector to invest in technical education. following developed teaching strategies that focus on innovation and creativity for the future generations industry and the encouraging of new investments directed to scientific research in line with (Saudi Vision 2030).

Teaching all students: A holistic and collaborative approach to increasing student success

Veronica Udeogalanya

Department of Economics and Finance Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, USA


All students who enroll have success as their main goal. However, most institutions focus their resources on programs for students on honor roll, Dean’s list and those progressing academically. Little resources remain for those students who stumble. In 2015, 36.2% of white students, 22.5% of black students, and 15.5% of Hispanic students had completed four years of college. This shows a 13.7% gap between black and white students and a 20.7% gap between Hispanic and white students. How do we close this gap in educational completion? If we believe that all students can learn, there needs to be educational equity and the development of a framework for instruction and assessment of all students’ learning outcomes. This paper represents an exploratory fundamental and qualitative research that aims to present a refocus on the role of faculty in teaching and learning to reach all students in classrooms. This paper examines a holistic and collaborative approach to increasing student success using evidence -based qualitative analysis of best practices. This approach has four component parts. Part 1 is the Holistic Component that involves engaging all students in the institution; communicating purposefully to them in a timely manner; and providing all-inclusive comprehensive support services (HC). This part develops and implements measurable benchmarks that motivate, encourage, and enable all students. Part 2 is the Collaborative Component which involves bringing six working teams together: faculty, industry, current majors, alumni, career services, and the community (CC). This part engages the team in maintaining a living curriculum that reflects the ever-changing global economy. Part 3 is Celebration of Student Success (CSS) which entails the collaborative team owning each milestone, reaffirming teamwork while building trust and persistence. Part 4 is the Assessment of Student Progress (ASP) using the holistic and collaborative approach. The paper concludes that holistic and collaborative teamwork that includes, respects, and empowers all students is the key to reducing the college completion gaps that exist among blacks and Hispanic students.

Employees’ emotional intelligence and service delivery to customers: A comparative study of selected deposit money banks in Nigeria and Liberia

Smith Farley Roland1 and Akinbode James Olalekan2

Business Administration Programme, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria1

Industrial Relations and Personnel Management Programme Bowen University, Osun State, Nigeria2


For decades, service delivery challenges have remained contentious in both Nigerian and Liberian banking sector with studies pointing towards different reasons. This study examined one of the reasons which is employees’ emotional intelligence as it determines service delivery to customers in selected deposit money banks of Nigeria and Liberia. Literature review captured employee emotional intelligence and customers service delivery to evolve gaps which set pace for this study. This provided the springboard with which the methodology adopted was built on. Specifically, survey design was adopted with both bank customers and employees in the main branches of the commercial centers of the countries as the population of the study. Bank customers and their employees were sampled with both purposive and convenience techniques. Two sets of questionnaires were adopted for the study: one for the customers and the other for bank employees. Data collected was analysed with appropriate statistical methods. Results revealed no significant difference in the deposit money banks customers’ complaint rate in Nigeria and Liberia Banks; no significant difference between the employees’ Emotional Intelligence level of Nigeria bank employees and Liberia bank employees; self-management is the only significant contributor to the quality of service delivery in Nigeria; while social skill, social awareness as well as self-management were the predictors that significantly contribute to the quality of banks service delivery in Liberia; and there is a significant combined influence of the predictors of employees’ emotional intelligence on bank service delivery to customers in both countries. The study conclude that emotional intelligence is fundamental to service delivery to customers in both countries. It was recommended that bank management in both countries need to come up with purposeful employees’ emotional training programs to improve employees’ emotional intelligence competencies while individual employees should also seek knowledge on how to continuously enrich their emotional intelligence level.

Challenges for organizational structure and design as a result of digitalization and cybersecurity

Narcisa Roxana Moşteanu

Department of Business Administration American University of Malta, Malta


Fintech technologies and digital systems transformation have become the most commonly used words in the last decade, with a direct impact on any organizational structure and design. Rearranging values change the business process. The present paper emphasizes that, in order to remain competitive and achieve market longevity, organizational structures must keep up with the digital transformation and implementation of new security systems in order to face cyberattacks exposure. Protecting data (e.g. financial and clients), improving the performance but also the survival of institutions is related to the adoption of innovation and the adoption of digital changes into organizational culture and redesign its structure. The article aims to show how new technologies together with their requirements can improve the organizational structure to face actual challenges, such cyberattacks; and how digital transformation and the adoption of new technologies have changed the approach of the job requirements on the global level. In order to underline the necessity of amendments of the business process, the author redesigns an organizational structure taking into consideration new technologies challenges and implementations of new functions. The change proposed for redesigning the organizational structure is based on balancing the differentiation and integration among specialized departments, to avoid operational risks.

Strategic alliance as a catalyst for restructuring of the global economy: a theoretical perspective

Eke Donatus Izuogu

School of Business Education Federal College of Education in Affiliation with Nnamdi Azikiwe University Anambra State, Nigeria


This paper examines strategic alliance as a model for re-aligning the global economy towards sustainable peace and development in the emerging new world order. The paper aims at critically examining the existing positions/ status of various countries of the world, particularly, the dichotomy between under-developed, developing and developed nations as well as regional integrations and separatists associations or groupings vis-à-vis the general economic positions of the various nations of the world, thus juxtaposing the highlights towards repositioning or restructuring of the global economy. The paper adopted a theoretical perspective with a view to unveiling the critical indices within the variables of interest and proposed a new direction in the academic genre of world economic conferences. The paper concludes that the world economy is evolving, and emerging trends indicate a tumultuous transition that requires global attention, rather than separatists’ approach by individual nations or groups. The paper therefore, recommends, (i) immediate convocation of international/global conferences on economic restructuring cutting across all nations, irrespective of the status in economic growth; (ii) a re-alignment and adjustments in the barriers posed by nations on inter-regional employments; (iii) an increased tempo in cross-border exchange in various relationships in entrepreneurship studies as well as other key educational and skill development programmes, (iv) cross-fertilization of ideas, skills, competences and knowledge across nations irrespective of creed, color or location; (v) a total re-skilling, re-tooling and reinvigoration of mutual co-existence rather than rugged individualistic and self-reliance approach of nations. The paper is significant in policy analysis and global economic planning.

Effect of financial inclusion on entrepreneurial growth in retail and wholesale sub-sectors: Evidence from Nigeria

Anisiuba Chika Anastesia1, Ezeaku Hillary Chijindu2 and Emengini Emeka Steve1

Department of Accountancy University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria1

Department of Banking and Finance Caritas University, Enugu, Nigeria2


Financial inclusion has been globally recognised as essential for capital accumulation, easy financial services accessibility, poverty alleviation as well as entrepreneurial and economic growth. As Nigerian government is making progress in the achievement of financial inclusion, many businesses seems to be springing up in the financial and other economic sectors with intention to tap from the growing access to official financial services. This paper aims at ascertaining the effect of financial inclusion (FI) on entrepreneurial growth (EG) in retail and wholesale sub-sectors in Nigeria using quarterly data from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators and the Central Bank of Nigeria. Data were analysed using correlation analysis and error correction approach. The results reveal that FI has a significant positive effect on EG particularly in the context of the retail and the wholesale subsectors contributions to gross domestic product (GDP). The results further indicate that account ownership (ACN) did not have significant influence on the growth rate of the retail and the wholesale sub-sectors, while commercial bank branches (CMB) was found to have significant influence on the growth rate of the retail and the wholesale sub-sectors. This implies that CMB is a critical FI channel with potentials of driving the EG particularly in the context of the retail and the wholesale sub-sectors contributions to GDP. We recommend that government should establish more CMB in all rural areas in Nigeria for easy access to official financial products by the unbanked entrepreneurs. Also, FI stakeholders should deepen efforts in encouraging ACN through improving on financial literacy of the vast unbanked populace so that formal financial system through capital accumulation can serve the needs of entrepreneurs for effective growth and contributions to GDP.

Financial digitalization and its implication on jobs market structure

Narcisa Roxana Moşteanu and Batoul Modarress Fathi

Department of Business Administration American University of Malta, Malta


Finance digitalization and digital transformation have become the most commonly used words in the last decade, but especially in recent years. The present paper emphasizes that, in order to remain competitive and achieve market longevity, organizational structures and financial services must keep up with the digital transformation. Improving the performance but also the survival of institutions is related to the adoption of innovation and the adoption of digital changes. This article aims to show how digital transformation and the adoption of new technologies have changed the approach of the workplace, the way of doing business and redefined the parameters of the financial products and services offered. The research finds out that the main impediments encountered in digitizing the activity of institutions is the efficient storage and utilization of the database, as well as the qualification and speed of adapting the workforce to the new requirements regarding the provision of innovative administrative and financial products and services through digital technology. In the same line, using macroeconomic indicators from different regions of Europe, related to the movements and new developments of the labor market, economic and social progress trend, the present work paper comes to sound an alarm signal for a new economic and technological education policy approach. The paper underlines the movements of the labor market and the possible solutions to redirect the specialization curriculums in order to equip people with those qualifications and skills which will make them employable on the current digitalized business environment.

The influence of responsible leadership on talent retention

Evangelia Fragouli and Masoud Alhaider

School of Business, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK


Recently, the relationship between responsible leadership and talent retention has been discussed in the literature. Retention of talent is perceived as a crucial component in an organisation’s business strategy where employees become the key set of stakeholders. However, the particular practices that result in retaining the most effective employees, specifically young professionals, and new managers, remain difficult to pinpoint. The aim of this research is to study the relationship between responsible leadership and talent retention. Existing literature on the topic has been reviewed to address the objective of this research. The findings indicate that there is a close association between responsible leadership and talent retention. Responsible leadership encourages leaders to lead their followers in a way that enhances their connection with society, the environment, stakeholders and with the organisation generally. The findings of the study further reveal that responsible leadership does not just influence talent retention, it enables autonomous motivation amongst employees and improves the performance of the organisation as a whole.

OWN Brownsville: Developing sustainable economic development models in low-income communities, through Entrepreneurship and Real Estate Acquisition/Development

La’Shawn Muhammad

Investigating constraints to black and urban entrepreneurship

Micah E. S. Crump