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ISSN 2047-2854 (PRINT) 2047-2862 (ONLINE)
Volume 13 Number 2

11th International Conference on the Restructuring of the Global Economy (ROGE) 2022

The likely adoption of the IFRS Foundation's proposed sustainability reporting standards

Achmad Petersen , Shelly Herbert and Nabeelah Daniels

College of Accounting, University of Cape Town, South Africa


There has been a rising demand for the global convergence of sustainability reporting standards (SRS) to provide consistency and comparability. The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Foundation has stepped forward, formed the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) and proposes to develop a global set of SRSS. These standards will focus on the financial impacts of sustainability issues and are targeted towards the investor. However, this approach does not align with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), the most commonly used sustainability reporting framework globally, which adopts a multistakeholder focus. This study aims to analyse the SRS currently being used by the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) Top 100 companies, the respective focus of these standards, and suggest whether these companies are likely to adopt the ISSB standards over the frameworks currently being used. A content analysis approach is adopted. The reports and websites of these companies are examined to identify the sustainability reporting guidelines and frameworks currently being used and whether these companies submit disclosures to reporting bodies. The results show that regardless of whether the ISSB standards are adopted, companies are likely to continue using the current frameworks to report beyond the financial impact of sustainability issues.

The impact of leadershift on cultural agility policy: The search for effective way of mindfulness

Zeinab Shawky Younis and Dina Assem Abelmounem Mohamed

The British University in Egypt Business Department, Egypt


To achieve an agile business culture, leaders must match styles with situations (leadershift). Such a goal can be acquired by utilizing special abilities and skills, such as Mindfulness. We tested such a framework of research to identify the role of Mindfulness as a personality trait that any leader should effectively utilize to achieve an agile organizational culture successfully. The variance model was applied by a cross-sectional survey on a sample from the Egyptian Post Authority to evaluate their success using the proposed tools in their latest era of significant changes. Findings reveal that Mindfulness is a compelling personality trait that facilitates leadershift, identified as shifting leadership styles with high flexibility to fit the situation. Such a trait helped the management of the Egyptian Post Office to achieve a thriving agile culture as a state-owned enterprise. Moreover, further implications were highlighted for practitioners and academic researchers to investigate the relationship profoundly.

Annexation stability and financial implications

Kristina Khederlarian

Azusa Pacific University, USA


Throughout the course of history, annexation has littered the international scene as major powers exert their force in the takeover of smaller lands. Sometimes these takeovers are violent, and others are not, but what we undoubtably see is that annexation will be successful if economic indicators rise, post-acquisition. For the purposes of this study, we will define success as the substantial decrease of violence six months after the takeover. We will focus our attention to three prominent cases of annexation by major powers: Crimea, Kashmir, and Hong Kong. We will briefly examine what our study suggests for Ukraine and Taiwan. Our first aim will be to arrive at a developed scenario analysis that identifies actions taken by governments to harmonize territorial integrity. The second aim is to identify the consequences of annexation from a financial pers. Results of this study suggest that financial conditions within the contested areas are an indicator of political stability and successful annexation. Regardless of external pressure from the international community, successful annexation can be achieved.  Findings indicate that as overall GDPPC rises and property values rise, the contested area has support from local constituencies for annexation by the major power.

The effects of the digital age on privacy in The United States

Achyuth Rachur, Jonathan Putman and Clifford Fisher

Purdue University, USA


Over the course of the last 3 decades, the world has seen monumental shifts in how information is collected, transmitted, and disseminated. Every aspect of our personalities that live on the internet, including our browser history, photos we post to social media, our shopping decisions, and our selection of online friends, has been collated, quantified, and assimilated into a digital profile, which has skyrocketing value to an increasing number of businesses. With these developments in technology come the inevitable questions of ownership of such data, its use, misuse, and even possible theft. This paper takes a comprehensive and comparative look at the data privacy legislature in the two largest data hubs in the world, namely the United States and the European Union. The paper also seeks to address the shortcomings of certain, past legislative decisions, and makes a recommendation for the future. To do this, we analyze the events of the past, using the 2016 Facebook/Cambridge Analytica data scandal as a focal point.

Challenges in quality of education in higher education institutions (HEIs) of Pakistan

Zohaib Hassan Sain

Superior University, Pakistan


The purpose of this study is based on exploratory research to identify “Challenges in Quality of Education in HEIs of Pakistan”. Exploratory research approach is used to achieve the objectives of the study in less time and inexpensive means. From the last few years, Pakistan is facing a lot of challenges in education sector such as curriculum, less training institutions, corruption in education, teacher’s behavior, less research work. Emerging issues in education sector are less training institutions and trend towards research work which is essential to follow for the growth and strength of any economy. The purpose of our research is to identify the major challenges in educational sector in Pakistan which the educational sector is suffering from last few years. The researcher used triangulation in order to carry the reliability and validity of the data for results. So, to conduct this triangulation the researcher used questionnaire for the students, questionnaire for the teachers and interviews of the management. In this regard primary data was collected from the focused group of students using a sample of 100 questionnaires for each university were filled by the students of the selected five universities. This attempt of conducting the research will play an important role in the development of Pakistan. In this research Curriculum, Corruption in education, less training institutions, Teacher’s behavior and less research work are independent variables and Quality of Education is dependent variable. In future, we will research on the solution of these problems. To increase the literacy rate, the Govt. of Pakistan has announced that the education is compulsory for sixteen years old for every citizen.

Skill and vocational educational in the socio-economic development of rural youth in India: An empirical Study

Vidhu Gaur

Management Development Institute Gurgaon, India


VET (Vocational Education and Training) is an essential part of the country's educational strategy. Both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies were used in this study. The present paper is a small attempt to describe and see the overall skill and vocational education system and its impact on rural youth in India using Quantitative as well as Qualitative Research techniques. A descriptive study approach was used to assess the thought process, degree of awareness, and perception of skill-based training among a chosen population. Because education is widely regarded as the most effective weapon for development, our government is attempting to educate almost all individuals, particularly those in rural regions, via a vast vocational Education initiative. The concept is that via education, unskilled employees will become skilled, peasants will be taught in new crops and will be able to adopt new agricultural practises and educated people will develop strategies for self-employment after learning new methods and skills.

Remittances flow to India and its impact on growth over three decades since 1991

Asim K. Karmakar 1, Subhajit Majumder2 and Subrata Kumar Ray3

Department of Economics, School of Professional Studies Netaji Subhas Open University, India1

Department of Economics, University of Gour Banga, Malda, West Bengal, India2

Prabhu Jagatbandhu College, Howrah University of Calcutta, West Bengal, India3


In many developing countries, remittance payments from migrant workers are observed as an increasing magnitude and becoming a significant source of foreign reserve earnings. Remittances inflow is noted to be very useful in promoting household welfare, health, and education particularly in developing countries. Inflows of remittances to India have experienced a sharp rise in last three dictates. Remittances have also emerged as a more important and stable source of foreign exchange inflow compared to official development assistance, foreign direct investment or other types of capital flows in particular in developing countries.Among countries today, the top recipient countries are India with $79 billion, followed by China ($67 billion), Mexico ($36 billion), the Philippines ($34 billion), and Egypt ($29 billion) (World Bank 2019).Available evidences indicate that migrant labour flows from India since 1990s have not only registered impressive growth, in respect of the traditional destinations like United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK), Canada and the Gulf countries but also have diversified and expanded to newly emerging migrant destinations in continental Europe (Germany, France, Belgium), Australasia (Australia, New Zealand), East Asia (Japan) and South-East Asia (Singapore, Malaysia).In this study we have concentrated on the long-run relationship between remittances inflow and the economic growth of India considering annual data over the period 1975-2016. For this purpose, we have used VAR (The vector auto regression) model for estimating the significance relationship and the direction of the relationship.

Employee engagement, ethical leadership, and crisis

E. Fragouli 1 and X.M. Louka2

Kingston University, UK1

Hellenic Open University, Greece2


The Greek economic crisis is part of the ongoing Eurozone crisis and was triggered by the global economic recession in October 2008. The Greek society as a whole is affected. This study examines, through critical literature review, the effect of crisis on a number of important work-related attitudes such as employee engagement, person-organisation fit, affective commitment, psychological climate, and ethical leadership. Furthermore, using crisis management (CM) theory, we examine employee engagement and ethical leadership as useful and efficient tools to cope with the crisis. Moreover, this correlation study tests whether the affected from Greek economic crisis person-organisation fit, affective commitment, psychological climate and ethical leadership relate with employee engagement. To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, there is no other research to date which examines the aforementioned relationships during the Greek economic crisis. Based on relevant literature, we predict that employee engagement should have positive relations with person-organisation fit, affective commitment, psychological climate, and ethical leadership under an economic crisis. Analysing empirical data from a heterogeneous sample of Greek private sector employees, we found evidence supporting our hypotheses. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications for further research.

Absolute globalization: The way to confront the global challenges

Md. Nazmul Hossain , Barek Hossain and Raju Mohammad Kamrul Alam

RUDN University, Moscow, Russia


The world is currently confronted with multidimensional challenges which are cause of concern for the earth’s all living creations. The most remarkable challenges are global warming and global climate changes, tremendous poverty, environment pollution, warfare, antibiotic resistance, migration problems, and the spread of contagious and deadly diseases etc. The adverse effects of these are very devastating. They will affect hydrology and biology of earth, everything including economy, eco-system, and the substances. The challenging factors are interconnected, and acceleration and minimization are interlinked. The study is to analysis the challenges the world is currently confronting with and their potential impacts, the reasons behind the challenges and the potential way to overcome the challenges. The study is based on secondary sources of data and information including scientific and academic journals, scholar articles, research papers, books, and other relevant sources to make a deep analysis, interpretation and re-interpretation and describe and explain the issue of this proposed study.

The study recommends ‘Absolute Globalization’, an absolute integration of global economic, education, political, and social institutions where regionalism will be the cornerstone of the integration, as the way to confront the challenges.  

Exploring the effect of business strategy on employees’ retention during pandemic and after Brexit: The case home care sector in UK

Olga Crasii and Yehia Sabri Nawar

London South Bank University, UK


This research is related to the care business in Great Britain. The research question, employees’ Retention in Care Business during COVID-19 and after Brexit, is very urgent and needs significant improving and finding a way to make it as high quality as it was before the pandemic and Brexit. The most important and vital problem the care companies are struggling with in this uncertain period – is inappropriate stuffing and people retention. This article highlights the ways how the government and care companies are managing staff retention during the Pandemic and Brexit. It also explains how the data was collected, its research philosophy, approach, strategy, and methods. There are so many factors that negatively impacted these two areas and need to be resolved as soon as possible. To investigate this research problem, the interview was conducted among individual employees to explore their experiences of retention and working conditions during this challenging time.  The expectations are that by distributing the ideas on good practice others can learn from the experiences and that the information can be used to shape future resources.

Impact of Brexit policy on textile/clothing and footwear UK imports

Rachel A. English

School of Business, University of Leicester Brookfield campus, Leicester, UK


On 23 June 2016 the UK voted to leave the EU, (Brexit).  A four year and six-month period of uncertainty ensued before Article 50 was activated.  Eventually the UK-EU Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) came into force on 1 May 2021. The UK retail sector, in particular the textile/clothing and footwear, relies on high levels of international importation to the UK.  As the negotiations between the UK and the EU were undertaken, key elements featured in the development of the new Brexit policy.  This paper examines the impact on the textile/clothing and footwear UK importation trade in relation to three of these key elements: -

June 23, 2016, UK voted to leave the EU.
29 March 2017 Article 50 was triggered.
October 2019 Article 50 extended.

The data was modelled using the main five UK import partners in relation to textile/clothing and footwear from the WITS (World Integrated Trade Solution) database and the UK Office of National Statistics annual and monthly data sets, in relation to the three key elements of policy. The study provided an initial insight into the impact of policy decision making during the Brexit process. The findings show that Key elements of Brexit policy making had a negative impact on importation trade in relation to Textile/Clothing and Footwear. Further research is recommended to establish the long-term effects of Brexit policy on the UK retail economy as a whole, over the next five years.  This to be extended to the export of textile/clothing and footwear from the UK to EU and Non-EU trading partners.

Assessing the digital readiness of a company: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

Pallavi Jain 1 and Neera Jain2

Global Engagement Manager, HCL Technologies, India1

Management Development Institute Gurgaon, India2


Digital transformation integrates digital technology that helps companies transform and streamline day-to-day procedures. It creates an environment and culture that requires proactive participation throughout the organization. It allows companies to position themselves better and compete in a constantly evolving, everchanging market space and aids them in unlocking operational efficiency and enhancing productivity.

The pandemic has pushed us towards a world where digital transformation is paramount. It has given many organizations a harsh wake-up call and has forced businesses to adopt a more agile and flexible path. Many organizations have automated their operations to better serve customers and protect employees. As a result, businesses must maintain their passion for advancing their digital skills to stay up with the new reality and gain a comprehensive grasp of the digital transformation area.

The objective of this study was to conduct an exploratory qualitative study with 27 executives from different industries to understand why companies are moving towards digital transformation, the challenges faced by them, and what is the meaning of a digitally ready company. The grounded theory approach was used to derive themes, define parameters, and create a   digital maturity graph to classify organizations according to their digital readiness. The originality of the paper lies in that it contributes to theory as the Grant Thornton model is used to create the digital maturity index. The practical contribution is that by using this matrix, the organizations can create a roadmap to embark on their digital transformation journey.

Impact of gender accounting on risk management in treasury functions of Nigeria deposit money banks

Israel Seriki Akinadewo 1, Philip Olawale Odewole 2 and Ifeoluwa Mary Adebiyi1

Department of Accounting, Afe Babalola University, Ekiti State, Nigeria1

Department of Accounting and Finance, Elizade University, Ondo State, Nigeria2


Fraudulent practices in the banking sector, especially as it affects the functions of the treasury department has been a subject of intense concern to policymakers and other stakeholders. It is, however, believed that if more female bank staff are utilised, it could lead to a better management of risk. This study investigated the nexus between gender accounting and the dependent variable. Structured questionnaire was administered on 10 staff of each of the Nigerian Deposit Money Banks. The population, which also represents the sample size comprises of 10 banks purposively selected with only 39% responses received. Data were analysed with the aid of logit regression. The results showed a significant positive relationship between gender accounting and risk management in treasury functions (Adj. R2 =0.680, F-stat = 21.145, p<0.05). This implies that increase in the independent variable will reduce the risk associated with the treasury functions of banks in Nigeria with diverse results from the three proxies of independent variable. The descriptive results showed that more women in the treasury will minimise theft of funds. The study concluded the need for policymakers and regulatory authorities to establish the policy that will encourage more of women inclusion in the banking treasury department.          

Have Indian deep trade agreements achieved their export potential- implications for the future

Leena Ajit Kaushal

MDI Gurgaon, India


The present study investigates the export potential of India’s deep & shallow trade agreements over the last two decades by employing stochastic frontier gravity model. The analysis investigates if the level of integration matters.  The study further explores if the deep trade agreements supported Indian trade during pandemic times. The study finds that India’s deep trade agreements have achieved only 32 percent efficiency over the period of study and have not promoted exports, unlike the shallow trade agreements even during the pandemic.

The relationship between efficiency of education and economic development: A comparative study

Hoda Abd El Hamid Ali 1 and Hajar Tarek Mahmoud2

Vice Dean for Education and Student Affairs Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration Future university in Egypt1

Senior Economic Researcher Influence Communications, Egypt2


In the last years governments are working towards improving their economic development stance among countries, while also working on achieving their set sustainable development goals in different sectors. One of those sectors that plays a vital role in enhancing and improving economic development ranks is education. However, countries are not paying enough attention on improving and developing their education system through neither increasing their spending on developing and improving their education sector nor paying attention on assessing their efficiency performance in education. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the impact of efficiency of education on economic development through on selected Asian and North African countries from the period of 2000-2021. In which the results of this study have showed that the efficiency of education determinants has a positive impact on spurring economic development. The outcomes of the study have also indicated that the countries who recorded higher efficiency of education and thus higher economic development rate are the countries that are concentrated in Asia. On the other hand, North African countries had low rates of education efficiency and lagged behind in the economic development ranks compared to Asian Countries this was due to the characteristics of their education system which was acknowledged by being underdeveloped infrastructure, traditional learning tools, and low government spending.

Does green brand positioning limit carbon emissions in egypt? new evidence from PLS – SEM Method

Heba Abdel Wahab and Doaa Mohamed Ismael

Future University in Egypt, Egypt


Sustainability has now emerged as a critical priority for businesses. With consumers' increasing concern about the environment, many businesses are fast investigating and exploring new approaches, creating new ideas, and preparing different approaches to position their green brands in the minds of the customers as a solution for environmental problems. This study contributes to the literature by the being among the first to test the impact of green purchase intention on carbon emissions in Egypt. A new conceptual framework was formed by integrating three important theories: theory of planned behaviour (TPB), Cognition–affection–behavior theory of attitude (CAB) and Value Belief Norm (VBN) theory of environmentalism. The proposed model incorporates green brand positioning, consumer`s green attitude, perceived environmental knowledge, green behaviour, green brand knowledge, and green purchase intention as main factors. A questionnaire was designed, and we obtain 231 eligible responses. We used PLS – SEM method to test the validity and reliability of the measurement model and then testing the hypothesises using structural equation model. The finding revealed that higher consumer`s intention to purchase green brands (GPI) would lead to lower carbon emissions (CE) and thus improve the environmental quality. We found also a positive and significant effect of consumers' attitude (GA) towards green brands and green behaviour on consumers' intention to purchase green brands (GPI). On the other hand, green brand positioning (GBP), perceived environmental risks (PEK), and green brand knowledge (GBK) have insignificant impact on consumers' intention to purchase green brands in Egypt. Moreover, the results showed that perceived environmental knowledge (PEK) and green brand knowledge (GBK) have indirect effect on consumer's intention to purchase green products through their effect on consumers' attitude and thus CGA is said to play a significant intermediary role. Furthermore, GBK is said to mediate the relation between GBP and GPI.

Generation Z & Y Preferences of User Acceptance of Mobile Health Recommender Systems

Ghada Alaa 1 and Ghada Refaat El Said2

Information & Decision Support Center IDSC The Egyptian Cabinet1

Department of Management Information Systems Future University in Egypt, New Cairo, Egypt2


Mobile health (mHealth) applications provide equal reach to health care services at an affordable cost. mHealth can play a major role in enhancing the quality and access of health services in developing countries, still the adoption of mHealth in these countries is very low. On the other hand, younger generations have great dependence on mobile devices and have high potential to adopt mobile applications. The aim of this study is to investigate factors that affect user acceptance of mobile health recommender system among Generations Z (between 10 and 25 years old) & Y (between 26 and 40 years old). The research adopts Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) constructs and extends them to include constructs related to Trust and Reputation, as mHealth is prone to uncertainty and vulnerability. Based on 136 valid responses collected from a survey, structural equation modelling SEM was employed to examine the research questions. The data were analyzed using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) method. The results suggested that for generations Z & Y, Perceived Usefulness has a significant positive effect on behavioral intention to use mobile health recommender system. This direct relationship is affected by user characteristics, namely gender and experience using technology. Perceived Ease of Use and Trust in mHealth applications, significantly increase the Perceived Usefulness. The results reveal the importance of perceived reputation in building Trust in mHealth applications, and it is found that Output Quality has a positive influence on Reputation.  Computer anxiety has a negative effect on Perceived Ease of Use. These findings provide a basis for improving the understanding toward factors affecting mHealth applications in developing countries. The study provides number of practical design recommendations for designers and service providers.

Defining employee pro-environmental, social and governance behaviors

Mike Wagner 1 and Melanie Boyle2

Carl H Lindner College of Business University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, USA1

Standard Textile, Cincinnati, USA2


Purpose. With the increasing importance of environmental, social and governance (ESG) reporting, organizations are seeking ways to improve ESG performance. One of these ways is encouraging employee behaviors that support ESG. While some research has examined employee behaviors that support specific components of ESG, such as pro-environment behavior, this research is fragmented. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the various ESG outcomes which employees can influence, and then propose a single scale to measure employee support for ESG, along with recommendations for future research.

Methodology. The authors reviewed ESG reports from several large, multinational companies, as well as previous research on ESG and corporate social responsibility. The authors sought to identify ESG outcomes which employees can influence, and then develop a scale based upon these areas.

Findings. The authors identify several areas within ESG which employees can influence. These include areas such as support for volunteering, employee giving campaigns, diversity and inclusion, environmental initiatives, data governance and others. Based upon these findings, the authors developed the above-mentioned scale.

Originality. While previous studies have examined employee support for specific components of ESG, this paper offers a comprehensive framework. In particular, there has been little research focused on employee support for governance behaviors, such as data stewardship.

Study implications. This paper provides a scale which can be used to measure employee support for ESG behaviors. This scale can help employers understand their employees’ level of support for ESG. In addition, it can help researchers understand whether employee support for ESG is related to organization-level outcomes, such as ESG ratings.

Knowledge management processes and strategic human resources management: creating competitive advantage through employee innovation behavior

Lara Ayman Abou Bakr Shaalan 1, Abdel Moniem Elsaid 2 and Ghadeer Mohamed Badr ElDin Aboul-Ela1

Future University in Egypt, Egypt1

Faculty of Commerce, Ain Shams University, Egypt2


Purpose:  this paper aims to investigate the impact of Knowledge Management Processes and Strategic Human Resources Management on creating Competitive Advantage. The research investigated the direct impact of Knowledge Management Processes and Strategic Human Resources Management. In addition to exploring the impact by using the moderating role of Employee Innovation Behavior.

Research design, data, and methodology:  the paper used quantitative approach to collect the data; 400 questionnaires were distributed at three telecommunication companies in Egypt “Vodafone, Etisalat, Orange. The data collected from the questionnaires were statistically analyzed using SPSS and AMOS 22 programs to conduct a Structured Equation Model, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and a Path Analysis.

Results: The results showed that there is a direct positive effect of knowledge management processes on competitive advantage. However, there is a direct positive effect of Strategic human resources management on organization competitive advantage. Furthermore, there is a direct positive effect of knowledge management processes on organization competitive advantage when employee innovation behavior. Besides, there is a direct positive effect of strategic human resources management on organization competitive advantage when employee innovation behavior is a moderator variable.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that to enhance the organizational innovation capability if the HR practices are prompted by the HR managers effectively. Through HR practices the knowledge can be administrated and shared effectively that will aid in attaining organizational innovation, as well as competitive advantages.

Analyzing employees’ perceptions of using artificial intelligence and gamification in HRM practices on employee’s job insecurity

Sara Mohamed Abdelaziz El-Menawy

Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration Future University in Egypt


Research on Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Gamification (GF) continues to expand, and the use of artificial intelligence has sparked discussions on the future direction of human resource management practices. The importance of artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of human resource management has increased as it enables departments to fulfil their duties more effectively. A specific focus on employees' perceptions of using Artificial Intelligence and Gamification in Human Resource Management Practices (HRMP) is still limited. This research aims to reveal the perceptions of HR employees towards artificial intelligence (AI) and Gamification (GF) in managing Human Resource Management Practices (HRMP). In addition, examining the relationship between using Artificial Intelligence and Gamification on Employees' Job Insecurity (JOBINS). This research has used a quantitative approach and data analysis. total of 450 respondents were involved in this research, but only 400 were qualified. the respondents are Human Resource employees in many sectors. Correlation and Regression analysis are used to test the research hypotheses.  The results of this research revealed that Using both Artificial Intelligence and Gamification has a significant positive effect on employees' job insecurity. In addition, the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the training and development process could help employees reduce the stress and time they spend on searching for and finding the right candidate. It could also help them improve the efficiency of their work by allowing them to focus on the training and not on the monotonous tasks. Moreover, using Gamification (GF) in managing Human Resource Management Practices (HRMP) could increase the employees’ motivation and Engagement. The contribution of this research to the literature is examining the gap between employees’ perceptions towards Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Gamification (GF) in managing Human Resource Management Practices (HRMP) and the impact on employees’ Job insecurity (JOBINS). This research provides a comprehensive analysis of the perceptions of employees about the use of artificial intelligence and gamification in HR departments. It also provides valuable insight into the potential of this technology in improving the efficiency of organizations. Further research is also needed to determine if the findings from this research could be applied to all employees inside the organization not only the employees who are working in HR department. In addition, it would be beneficial to conduct further studies on how to develop effective training and briefing materials for use of Artificial Intelligence in recruitment systems

The impact of green marketing strategies on consumers’ purchasing intention

Norhan Ashoush 1 and Wael Kortam2

Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, Future University in Egypt1

Professor of Marketing and Director of Advanced Marketing Research Centre (AMRC) British University in Egypt2


In the last few decades, the concern about the environment has evolved by not only being an important public matter, but it also became a critical matter for academic research as well. The term "green marketing" refers to efforts that promote environmental sustainability. This study aims to investigate the green marketing strategies and how they might impact the consumers’ purchase intention. This study investigated the impact of green marketing strategies on consumers’ purchase intention by using both primary and secondary data. Primary data utilized in this study through collecting data from the sample or target population through a survey using the non-probability quota sampling technique in order to evaluate hypotheses. Hence, a structured questionnaire was distributed and got responded by 385 respondents. Data were then analyzed through descriptive analysis, factor analysis, correlation matrix, regression, reliability, validity, and normality tests. Secondary data utilized in this study was gathered by reviewing the literature and previous studies about the green marketing and its strategies and the consumer’s purchase intention. Findings and results of the study indicated that green marketing strategies does have a positive impact on consumers’ purchase intention. As all the results showed that there was a significant, direct, and moderate relationship between the variables of the study. Moreover, the main findings of the study showed that although each strategy alone has a positive impact on consumers’ purchase intention but, using green marketing’s four strategies altogether is the best approach to stimulate consumer’s purchase intention.

The Trade participation of developing countries in the context of the global value chains

Heba Al-Sayed Mohamed Tolba

Faculty of Economics & Political Science, Future University in Egypt


This Paper explores the main role of Global Value Chain on the Pattern of International Trade and the impact on the developing and New-industrial countries through exports promotion of intermediate goods across value chains activities globally, In Addition exploring the effects of the participation on the pattern of international trade and the new reallocation of industrial hubs which have been distributed along the global value chains over the world.  The study applies the Qualitative analysis using the macro indicators relevant to the phenomenon to explain its impacts on the developing economies in a selected industry.

The mediating role of operating performance on the association between BOD features and firm financial performance. An applied study on the Egyptian Stock Market

Noha Zakaria Mohamed 1 and Heba Mohamed Srour2

Accounting Department, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration Future University in Egypt 1

Business Department, Faculty of commerce, Tanta University, Egypt2


Purpose: This paper examines the influence of operating performance as a mediator variable on the relationships between the various characteristics of the Board of directors and firms' financial performance, as measured by return on average total assets and the ratio of Earning per ordinary share, for nonfinancial firms listed on the Egyptian stock market.

Methodology:  A multiple regression analysis and path analysis are performed to explain the four models employed for a sample of (26) non-financial Egyptian firms from 2018 to 2021. Five principal hypotheses are examined, HO1: there is no statistically significant influence at the level of significance (a ≤ 0.05) for the Board of Directors’ characteristics on EPS. HO2: there is no statistically significant influence at the level of significance (a ≤ 0.05) for the Board of Directors’ characteristics on ROA. HO3: there is no statistically significant influence at the level of significance (a ≤ 0.05) for the characteristics of the Board of Directors on ATO. HO4: there is no statistically significant influence at the level of significance (a ≤ 0.05) for the characteristics of the Board of Directors on OPM. H05: operational performance has no significant impact on the relationship between the Board of Directors’ characteristics and firm financial performance measured by ROA and EPS.

Findings: Consistent with the majority of prior research, this study's findings indicate that Board of director characteristics have a positive, significant influence on firm financial performance during the study period. Additionally, BOD characteristics affect operating performance in a positive direction, particularly asset turnover. In addition, a path analysis reveals that operating performance acts as a positive mediator in this relationship.

Celebrity endorsement and its impact on purchase intention of luxurious brands

Mostafa Nabil 1, Habiba Khaled 1, Hagar Taher 1, Mirna Ayman 1, Norhan Ashoush1 and Reham Shawky2

Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, Future University in Egypt1

Faculty of Commerce, Tanta University, Egypt2


Celebrity endorsement is a persuasion strategy in which customers identify with the person featured in an advertisement. Celebrities promote services and products in ways that serve to increase brand awareness and credibility. Celebrity endorsement boosts trust, familiarity, and awareness of a product by endorsing it and advertising it, all of which are important elements in a consumer's purchasing decision. When defining purchase intention, it is described as the intention to purchase or obtain a product or a service, thus reflecting the customer’s desire to purchase a specific product from a specific brand. Meanwhile, a luxury brand and its products are associated with exclusivity, status, and superior quality.

This research aims to examine whether celebrity endorsement influences the purchase intention of luxury products or not. A survey was conducted and answered by a sample size of 145 respondents. Data were analyzed to test the hypothesis through regression analysis, factor analysis, and reliability tests.

Research findings indicate that celebrity endorsement does have an impact on the purchase intention of luxurious brands, especially when measuring the aspects of celebrity endorsement, which are celebrity credibility, celebrity expertise, product-celebrity match-up, physical attractiveness, and trustworthiness. However, the analysis showed that trustworthiness has the most significant impact, whereas celebrity expertise has no impact at all.

Educide: The Genocide of Education A case study on the impact of invasion, and conflict on education

Rula Alousi

Regent College London, UK


History has proven that education is the lifeblood of any society or country, providing a firm foundation for an established and civilised community. The destruction of an academic system may be recognised and conceded as a massacre imposed on a selected group. The importance of this research comes from its originality as it explores and introduces a new “word” which to date has had no formal definition nor recognition in the English language dictionary, which signifies the impact of mass killing and destruction on education. This research makes an original contribution, through recognising the destructive impact on educational infrastructure as a form of genocide. Accordingly, a significant impact on education and reduces the country's literacy rate, according to the International Criminal Court (International Criminal Court, 1998). The research also makes an original contribution to knowledge as it presents for the first time a formal introduction to a new word, reflecting this impact with a well-researched and investigated definition. The research findings demonstrate how war and conflict unquestionably have a significant impact on nations affected by conflict, notably in the fields of education and health. From this point, the research presented reference to previous historical cases, such as the invasion of Iraq, the Vietnam war, the genocide in Rwanda, and Nazi Germany, which can be seen as real-life evidence of how conflict would affect education and literacy rates. The research methodology was based on Iraq as a case study, using systematic literature review to investigate the link between genocide and the destruction of the education infrastructure. The research aims to present the elements of crime, justify the usage of the word educide while presenting a formal definition based on the research of previous usage, the genealogy and legality of the term through identifying what constitutes genocide.

Methodology model for poverty intervention: seeking validation and evaluating efficacy, using social marketing techniques

Ebikinei Stanley Eguruze

Regent College London, UK


Purpose:  This research seeks to investigate methods of validating the Methodology model for Poverty Intervention (MMPI), as well as its efficacy.

Design/Methodology:  It is an exploratory longitudinal design that is based on previous empirical studies entitled ‘What the young people and community organisations perceives their support needs in Nigeria in tackling poverty’ and ‘How to sway policy makers, using social marketing techniques (SMT)?’  As part of a mixed methods research methodology, for the quantitative data, an instrument comprising a two-part, 31-item questionnaire was utilised.  Part 1 is entitled, ‘You and Poverty Survey’ and Part 2 is entitled, ‘How to Ask Government Survey’. The interview schedule was also used in respect of the qualitative data and a discussion group methodology was adopted.  The research participants for these studies were a sample-size of 1461consisting of randomly selected young people.

Results/Findings: The findings revealed there appears to be an acute methodological validation limitation relating to these previous studies. The review showed that validation of the methodology is needed for global use.  It was also found that validation could be best achieved using an additional independently collected dataset, overseen by a higher level of institution suitably experienced and qualified in poverty eradication or social policy formulation, such as The University of Oxford/United Nations development Programme (UNDP).

Practical implications/conclusions: Poverty depicts a wide range of social challenges experienced daily, often beyond a person’s control. For example, inequality, social exclusion, deprivation, social disadvantages have emerged because of structural imbalances in society, and sometimes have devastating implications for vulnerable people in society: children, young people, women, minorities, people with disability, the elderly, and others. 

Old age pensions and economic development Analyzing the economic return of Pension in Mauritius

Gopy Ramdhany N , Seetanah B , Ramphul N , Bhattu-Babajee R and Teeroovengadum V

University of Mauritius, Mauritius


This paper attempts to assess the impact of social protection, with particular emphasis on old age pension on the economic growth of the island of Mauritius. The study makes use of rigorous time series econometric analysis over the period 1987 to 2018 to gauge if and the extent to which social protection and pension have been productive in the case of Mauritius. Results show that there is a positive and significant relationship between pension and economic growth in Mauritius. The coefficient of 0.123 is a measure of the efficiency of performance of pension concerning GDP creation. It is a measure of output elasticity of pension. A 1% increase in pension is likely to increase economic growth by 0.12%. In the short run, it is observed that there is an insignificant, although positive link, between pension and economic growth. This may indicate that the effects of pensions are felt on economic growth rather in the long run. The negative lagged value of the Error correction term indicates the existence of a long-term relationship and an adjustment of the effect to its long-run estimate. As far as the other determinants of Mauritian economic growth, it is found that it takes time for them to impact economic growth and thus remain essential long-term influencers.

Investigating the effect of augmented reality on customer brand engagement: The mediating role of technology attributes

Naglaa Mohamed Diaa

Department of Business Administration Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt


Increasing customer participation and engagement with the brand has become prominent to increase customer brand experience along the customer journey. Technological advancement and the growth in Augmented reality (AR) provide marketers with promising opportunities to engage customers. This study investigated the effect of augmented reality on customer brand engagement (CBE); the technology attributes based on the Technology acceptance model (TAM); perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and enjoyment were used as a mediator. An experiment was conducted on females in Egypt on a cosmetic AR Mobile application. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to identify the relationships of AR attributes, technology attributes, and customer brand engagement. All the hypotheses were statistically supported. The findings confirmed that augmented reality attributes positively affect customer brand engagement. Additionally, Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and enjoyment mediated the indirect and positive effects on CBE. The research provides marketers with practical implications for using AR technology.

Consumer consciousness of organic products and demographics characteristics: Are they related?

Nourhan Ibrahim Eldesoky

Marketing Department, Faculty of business Future University in Egypt, New Cairo, Egypt


Purpose of the research: Determining the relationship between consumer’s consciousness of organic products (environmental and health concern, organic knowledge, and consumer’s attitude) based on their demographics (age, gender, education, and income). Design/methodology: The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 18 was used to analyze the data. The following statistical procedures were used: Cronbach’s Alpha and correlation coefficients to assure the reliability and validity of the scales. Descriptive analyses, Multiple linear regression analysis, T-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and finally, Post–Hoc test to conduct comparisons in order to test the significance between Age, Education, and Income, and independent variables. Results/Findings: the main objective and hypothesis were accepted except environmental and health concern and organic food knowledge based on gender, organic food knowledge among on age, organic food knowledge, consumer's attitude based on education, environmental and health concern, and consumer's attitude based on income. Conclusions: this thesis had contributed to the previous research in the field of organic products, initially, the current study sought to study the relationship between consumer’s consciousness toward organic products and demographics, accordingly, questions were derived and hypothesis were also drawn from overall objectives by answering the research question and confirming the hypothesis ,the results of this study could be served as foundation for further research about organic products in Egypt.

The impact of corporate governance on controlling discretionary accrual: A study of impacts on earnings management based on FTSE350, UK

Rishiram Aryal

Lecturer In Regent College London


While the interests of shareholders contradict with the interests of the managers, agency problem appears. However, the principle of the agency theory is to establish the relationship between the shareholders and managers; and this paper relies on the involvement of corporate governance who can resolve the issues between earnings management and the underlying causes of the earnings management. The main aim of this study is to identify the impact of corporate governance on controlling the discretionary accruals based on the FTSE350, in the UK. This study has considered the performance matched discretionary accruals to measure the magnitude of the discretionary accruals.  To proceed the estimation of the discretionary accruals, this paper has considered the performance matched discretionary model. In addition, to measure the impacts of the corporate governance on the discretionary accruals, this paper has considered the OLS regression model which eventually has supported for the hypothesis testing.

The findings of this paper reveal the mixed results as board independence, Board Meeting, non-executive director’s fees, and block holder have significant impact whereas the presence of female in the board and board size do not have significant impacts on controlling discretionary accruals. In terms of the estimation of discretionary accruals, there are various models identified in the past. Hence, it is recommended that the models have to be tested and compared regularly to identify the most significant one; to conduct research for a particular market. On the other hand, identifying most effective models to calculate the value of discretionary accruals is quite crucial as most of the researchers are still using Modified Jones’s Model (1995).

Urban women entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh: Challenges and Preparations

Muhammad Ziaulhaq Mamun

Institute of Business Administration University of Dhaka, Bangladesh


To understand challenges of urban women entrepreneurship development the research interviewed 95 women entrepreneurs from various backgrounds, demographic statuses, and business ownership. The respondents’ personal challenges mostly attributed to financial constraints and work-life balance. The study noted that the entrepreneurs have received substantial support from their families; while, at the same time, obligations to working hours and type of work. The respondents’ limited sources of financing stuck to either personal savings or known sources. The lack of information about external financing and willingness to avail it, has limited their financing opportunities. Urban women entrepreneurs have upheld mainly day-to-day business planning, maintaining bookkeeping themselves trying to comply with tax regulations. However, the entrepreneurs lack set business plan. The lack of fund for promotion and knowledge of marketing has made them promote mostly through friends and family members.

It is noted that most of the businesses are either micro or small scale in nature. This frail stage of development can be attributed to lack of finance, technical and managerial expertise, and the overall societal outlook. In most cases the women have received no external legal, technical, networking, or other relevant support. The business environment is moderately supportive of women entrepreneurs with their ability to use their initiatives and the provision of equal opportunities for women. However, with conflicting roles of women in society resulted in difficulties in work life balance and preserving business practices and technical expertise. Perhaps more exposure and awareness of business preparations, managerial practices, project planning, work monitoring and evaluation, along with financial planning and sourcing can better equip them to expand their businesses.

Antecedents of “trust and perceived usefulness” and their effect on continuance intention of mobile payment platforms: a mediation and moderation study from Pakistan

Ayesha Jamal and Sohail Zafar

Department of Business Administration Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan


Purpose:  Further to Innovation Diffusion Theory and Technology Acceptance Models, this academic research determines how Trust and Perceived Usefulness of a Mobile Payment Platform affects the Continuance Intention of a customer. It uniquely contributes empirically, investigating two independent propositions.  In case one Mobility, Customization, Security and Reputation were tested as antecedents of Trust in Mobile Payment Platforms.  In the second case Mobility, Compatibility, Convenience and Reachability were tested as antecedents of Perceived Usefulness of Mobile Payment Platforms. The mediating effect of Trust and of Perceived Usefulness in relationships between all the Antecedents and Continuance Intention was investigated.  Additionally mediating effects of Perceived Risk and Perceived Ease of Use were tested with respect to Trust and Continuance Intention and Perceived Usefulness and Continuance Intention respectively.  Lastly, the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between respective antecedents and Trust, respective antecedents and Perceived Usefulness and moderation by gender in the relationship between Trust and Continuance Intention and moderation by gender in the relationship between Perceived Usefulness and Continuance Intention was investigated.

Study Design and Methodology: Data for the study were collected from 400 Mobile Payment Platform subscribers in Pakistan, all of them having used a Mobile Payment Platform of any Commercial Bank, Microfinance Bank, Telecommunication Company, or any other firm, at least once in their lifetime. Data were collected through an online survey using snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was floated on WhatsApp, Facebook, and Instagram; and respondents were requested to forward it to their contacts.  Structural Equation modeling was performed on the data with a Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Path Analysis, using the SmartPLS 3 software to test the regression relationships between latent constructs. Mediation was studied through Process Macro for SPSS and Moderation Analysis was carried out through Multi-Group Analysis on SmartPLS 3.

 Findings:  Twenty-two Research Questions were constructed and tested. The statistical analysis reveals that in Pakistan Trust acts as complementary mediator between antecedents (Mobility, Customization, Security and Reputation) and Continuance Intention. Also Perceived Usefulness was found as a significant mediator between Mobility, Compatibility, Convenience and Reachability and Continuance Intention respectively. The analysis also found that Trust and Perceived Usefulness exert a direct positive impact on Continuance Intention. Additionally Perceived Ease of Use serves as a mediator between Perceived Usefulness and Continuance Intention, whereas Perceived Risk did not mediate between Trust and Continuance Intention.

 The moderation effects of gender reported an impact on Customization, Security, Reputation and Convenience; whereby for the former two variables the impact was higher on female customers whereas for the latter two the impact was higher on male customers. Also, female respondents showed a greater likelihood towards Trust whereas male respondents depicted a greater impact towards Perceived Usefulness.

Managerial/Social implications: The study reports useful insights for the marketers in developing comprehensive and persuasive integrative marketing communications aimed at the Mobile Payment Platform users. The policy makers in specific and the society in general, need to focus on developing more Trust and Usefulness based strategies that focus on Customization, Reputation, Security, Convenience and Compatibility; and all strategies must highlight the gender preferences identified in the findings of this study.

Entrepreneurial intensity and internal business processes in the telecommunication industry

Ejiofor Ngozi Ukamaka and Ozurumba Keyna Chioma

Department of Business Administration Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu-Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria


The research work examined entrepreneurial intensity and internal business processes in the telecommunication industry. The specific objective of the study among others included to determine if proactiveness and risk-taking influences process quality in Nigeria telecommunication industry. The study also examined if innovativeness influences process quality in Nigeria telecommunication industry. The study made use of survey research design that allow for the use of questionnaires to elicit data from the respondents. The population of study comprises 3050 top, middle and lower/supervisory level managers, and members of staff in the branches of the selected telecommunication companies. A sample size of 354 was determined using Alien Taro Yamane method. The sample was drawn using a purposive sample technique. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, and regression analysis. Findings from the study reveal that there is significant relationship between proactiveness and process quality in Nigeria telecommunication industry. Risk taking positively influenced process quality while there is significant relationship between innovativeness and process quality in Nigeria telecommunication industry. The study recommends that management of firms in the telecommunication industry should instill entrepreneurial mindset among employees through training and learning related factors which are critical in developing entrepreneurial orientation. Government and all stakeholders should create a conducive business environment by proving adequate Security. Businesses need a supportive and favorable business environment to facilitate growth and sustainability.

Management training and development techniques of selected groups of companies: Reference for business organizations

Manolo L. Anto

University of Technology Bahrain College of Administrative and Financial Sciences


This study aimed to assess the existing management training and development techniques of selected groups of companies as reference for business organizations. It compared the extent of use of management training and development techniques such as, job rotation, coaching, action learning, case study method, management game, seminars, and corporate universities. In determining the extent of use of management training and development techniques, the mean was utilized; whilst one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to establish if significant difference existed between the extent of use of management training and development techniques among the selected groups of companies classified as small, medium, and large. The study disclosed that the extent of use of job rotation, coaching, action learning, case study method, management game, and seminars was to a Great Extent, whereas the corporate universities was only to a Moderate Extent. Of the three groups of companies, it is the small group which used corporate universities to a Moderate Extent only. The overall mean for the three groups of companies in the implementation of the seven techniques of management training and development was to a Great Extent. There was, however, a significant difference noted in the extent of use of management game as a management training and development technique between small and medium group of companies. Companies, therefore, may collaborate with educational institutions, training providers, and online training sites to develop training designs to suit to their employees’ needs.

Soft skills: a new key to employability and nomadic career: The case of Tunisian engineers

Hajer NAJEH 1 and Mohamed Karim KEFI2

Department of management University of Gabes – Tunisia1

EDC Paris Business School, OCRE, France2


Nowadays, employees who are eager to improve their careers, especially those who train engineers, are not only satisfied with the possibilities of development within the organization, but also satisfied with the opportunities that appear in the job market. For this reason, they work with their employers to develop their skills and enable them to be employed. Therefore, the purpose of our research is to test hypotheses about the relationship between career orientation (more or less nomadic), employability and career skills (mobilized in career management) and soft skills, which seem to be the cornerstones of employability today. In fact, a questionnaire survey of 200 engineers who graduated from the Tunisian School of Engineering showed that learning and employment skills would produce and develop soft skills, which justify the nomadic career intentions.

Tax payment compliance in the European Union member states

Małgorzata Magdalena Hybka

Poznan University of Economics and Business Department of Public Finance, Poland


Tax debt is usually taken into account when government institutions and scientists assess taxpayers’ compliance. To enhance payment compliance multiple strategies may be applied however as it is shaped by factors that are sometimes outside the control of the tax authorities such as the recent Covid crisis, effort placed into management of tax debt may eventually be less effective than that which all the management models predicted. Tax debt value, structure and enforcement methods vary from country to country. The OECD regularly monitors the development of tax debt and publishes reports. The national data in this regard is however usually incomplete and hardly comparable in relation to particular taxes. While some countries are relatively effective in managing tad debt others are failing to do so. The same is true for the European Union member states. In countries such as Greece total outstanding tax debt reaches an immense value. On the other hand, in Sweden or Germany its amount is almost negligible.  The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the recent trends of tax debt formation and its composition. It gives an insight into selected measures enabling tax authorities to manage tax debt and secure tax collection. It uses the method of comparative analysis to portray basic indicators of tax collection and tax debt recovery in the European Union member states.  

Impact of carbon dioxide emissions and environmental tax on the stock returns: Empirical evidence from 28 economies

Ume Salma Akbar , Niaz Ahmed Bhutto and Suresh Kumar Oad Rajput

Sukkur IBA University Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan


This study analyzes the country-level relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and stock market index returns and the impact of carbon dioxide abatement measures (environmental tax) on stock market index returns. Toward this end, we employ the “heterogeneous panel data approach” and “second generational econometric techniques” that permit “cross-sectional dependence” and “slope heterogeneity” on a sample of 28 countries across the world. The results obtained through “Common Correlated Effects Mean Group (CCEMG)” and “Augmented Mean Group (AMG)” estimators demonstrate a significant and negative relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and stock market index returns and a positive and significant relationship between pollution abatement measures (environmental tax) and stock market index returns. Further, these relationships prevail in the world’s biggest financial markets and carbon dioxide emitters. The finding of this study offers various valuable applications for investors, policymakers, brokers, corporations, governmental pollution abatement institutions, and other stakeholders who wish to obtain a carbon risk premium.

Echo-friendly initiatives and corporate reputation: the mediating effect of corporate social responsibility

Sahar Ahmed Nagaty

Department of Business Administration Faculty of Management Sciences Sadat Academy for Management Sciences, Cairo, Egypt


In contemporary global competition, businesses have been under growing pressure from various stakeholders to manage rare resources and investigate the environmental impact of their actions. The need for sustainable development and green marketing has gained significant traction because of heightened public awareness of several environmental issues. The goal of sustainability is depicted as a long-term process that requires reconciling environmental concerns with social and economic ones. Green marketing is becoming increasingly popular as a means for companies to demonstrate their commitment to corporate social responsibility while gaining a competitive advantage in the marketplace and improving their corporate reputation. This research aims to investigate the effect of green eco-friendly initiatives on corporate reputation and examine the effect of corporate social responsibility as a mediator between the green activity’s hotels implement and their corporate reputation. The researcher selected the Green Star hotels in the Red Sea in Egypt. Data was gathered through online self-administered questionnaires from a sample of 384 hotel guests. Statistical analysis was undertaken to examine the collected data using the proper statistical techniques and tests. Results revealed that green/eco-friendly activities significantly positively affect a hotel's corporate reputation.

Furthermore, corporate social responsibility mediates the relationship between green/eco-friendly activities and corporate reputation. It was also revealed that green/eco-friendly activities have a significant positive indirect effect on corporate reputation in the presence of corporate social responsibility. The results also demonstrate that eco-friendly and CSR activities may benefit developing and emerging economies. Research findings were discussed to reflect the researcher's interpretation and perception of the outcomes. The research provides hotel marketers with practical implications for using eco-friendly and CSR initiatives.

Correlate of emotional intelligence and academic staff job performance of federal universities in the southeast, Nigeria

Asogwa Ogochukwu Sheila 1 and Oboreh, Justina.C2

Department of Business Administration Nnamdi Azikiwe University.Awka. Anambra State. Nigeria1

Department of Business Administration Delta State University, Abraka. Nigeria2


There is an ever-increasing problem of creating a fit between work-life balances, managing individual emotions and meeting the demands of job requirements in achieving operational ascendency in organization. This problem necessitated the need for organizations to continue to look out for individual workers with high emotional intelligence that can effectively manage their emotions and responds to work for the desired performance. It is the complexity inherent in balancing the aforementioned while achieving the goal of the organization gave vent to this study. The study, therefore, investigated the effect of emotional intelligence on academic staff job performance of Federal Universities in the Southeast, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to determine the extent to which self-awareness relates to academic staff lob performance, to ascertain the extent to which self-management relates to academic staff job performance, and to establish the extent to which social awareness relate to academic staff job performance of federal universities in the Southeast, Nigeria. Correlation research design was employed because the study seeks to establish the degree or extent of the relationships among the studied variables and the data gotten through structured questionnaire designed in 5-point likert scale. The data collected was analyzed with Pearson Correlation Coefficient. The result indicated that there is positive and significant relationship between self-awareness and academic staff job performance (r=0.65, p<0.005, n=496), that there is a positive and significant correlation between self-management and academic staff job performance (r=0.59, p<0.005, n=496) and that there is a positive and significant relationship between social awareness and academic job performance (r=0.45, p<0.005, n=496).  The implication is that a holistic understanding of the dimensions of emotional intelligence would not only enable the individual workers to effectively manage their emotions but help the workers to overcome challenges and defuse conflict in pursuance to the attainment of organizational goal.

The 2022 Russia-Ukraine conflict and its wider future geo-strategic effects. A historian's perspective

Chris Bellamy

Professor Emeritus of Maritime Security at the University of Greenwich, UK


When Russia launched its ‘special military operation’ against Ukraine on 24 February 2002, attention initially focussed on Russian forces’ advance into mainland Ukraine, an incremental step beyond its annexation of Crimea in March 2014. Just as earlier Russian action fulfilled the prescription for ‘non-linear warfare’ set out in Gerasimov’s 2013 doctrine, the conventional attack now underway represented what should have been the final fifth of the template. However, that proved not to be the case and now, nearly six months later, the kinetic conflict still grinds on. The effect on global food security was not initially highlighted by observers but has since emerged as a major concern. While the shooting war remains confined to Ukraine, Russia and Ukraine produce 30 percent of the world's wheat supply. Before the war, Ukraine was seen as the world's breadbasket, exporting 4.5 million tonnes of agricultural produce a month through its ports. While Ukraine has managed to get some exports through other channels, they have only partly compensated for the closure of the Black Sea, with export volumes down to about 30 percent of their pre-war totals. Ukraine has been able to send some of its grain by road and rail, and a new naval route is opening up through the Danube estuary. But only 2.5 million tonnes were exported last month, much less than the eight million-tonne average before the war, and 25 million more are waiting in the Ukrainian port of Odesa. Ukraine has to export about 22 million tonnes of grain, while the railway allows it to export about 800 thousand tonnes per month. Before the kinetic phase of the war, Ukraine exported 70 percent of its grain, and about 400 million people around the world are dependent on it to some extent. Lebanon got 81 percent of its grain from Ukraine, Egypt 26 percent and Bangladesh 25 percent. Apart from being major global wheat suppliers, Russia is also a large fertiliser exporter and Ukraine a significant producer of corn and sunflower oil. It is clear that Putin is using the food crisis as a weapon. Russia considers the grain shortage caused by the blockade as a card that can be used in negotiations. On the other hand, an operation without Russia’s consent may lead to an undesirable escalation between NATO and Russia. Clinching a deal to unblock exports is seen as vital for food security, notably among developing nations, and for stabilising markets.

By early July negotiations were underway to try to open up the vital Black Sea route after Turkey impounded a Russian ship carrying what it said was grain stolen from Ukraine. But even if a protected corridor can be opened up, that is a very long way from a fuller peace deal where Ukrainian and Russian interests and demands are and remain utterly and implacably opposed. Furthermore, it looks as if Putin’s objectives – and therefore those of any successor – stretch far more widely. Putin has    said he wants to restore historic Russia, with references to Peter the Great and the Empress Catherine who turned Russia into a great European power. Putin’s immediate objectives: Crimea and possibly then the Baltic states, mirror those of Catherine’s conquests. Even if a further shooting war is avoided, Russia has other options including disabling the satellites on which we depend for communications, navigation and surveillance, and the undersea cables which carry the vast majority of cyber communications.

The implications for the Global economy are profound and must be considered in the light of other factors, demographic and environmental. Although vast in size and with prodigious, almost limitless natural resources, it has a small population. The transfer of thousands of Ukrainians to Russia and the granting of Russian passports to others in the eastern oblasti of Ukraine occupied by Russia underline this desire to repopulate the biggest country in the world. Global warming will probably work to Russia’s advantage. As the permafrost – the frozen subsoil below much of Siberia – melts, vast expanses of land and the mineral resources under it will become accessible and water is unlikely to be a problem.

Nato and the European Union have already taken a stand against further Russian expansion into Europe, turning Russia into a pariah state and isolating – or attempting to isolate - it from the global economy. But that could backfire. In Russia there is a long-standing polarity between westernizers - those who espouse western, including European, culture and traditions, and slavophils – those who emphasize Russia’s distinctive and unique culture and ways. If a new iron curtain emerges between Europe and Russia, Russia will inevitably turn east to its ‘eternal friend’ China. In 2016, Vladimir Putin and Chinese President Xi Jinping announced their states’ ‘eternal friendship’, and events in Europe are driving them closer together, China clearly has concerns about Russia’s adventure in Ukraine and its effects. Not least its effect in China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). But China has stopped short of condemning Russia’s actions and continues to support Russia- or, at any rate, abstain, in UN Security Council deliberations. As Europe puts up barriers to Russia in the west, it may not just find itself dealing with the heir to the Soviet Union, or to the empire of Catherine the Great. Linked with China via the new silk roads across Central Asia, it may be dealing with something stretching eastward. A new Mongol empire?

Structure and curricula of business education under new normal (Student centricity for employability and economic growth in Pakistan)

Bashir Ahmad 1, Maawra Salam 2 and Usman Ahmad1

DHA Suffa University (DSU), Karachi, Pakistan1

Bahria University Karachi Campus, Karachi, Pakistan2


Education is to serve a purpose otherwise it becomes meaningless. Since it creates awareness, therefore, has been the priority of mankind ever since their emergence and would continue to be so in times to come. The society gazes at the end result i.e., how well universities prepare the graduates for their professional lives. This notion decides the very purpose and foundation of any education system. Business education is to give skills to the young entrepreneurs to run the businesses, operate factories and manage organizations. This means objectives-based business education which is possible when there is perfect synch among business schools, corporate sector, and the society.

Therefore, in a student centricity paradigm, the business schools need to produce graduates with corporate outlook who could develop enterprises. The main factors to produce professionals include curricula, faculty, infrastructure and above all vision of the business school. COVID-19 has given new experience to business schools i.e., operating under off-campus environments. Obviously, Post COVID-19, ‘New Normal’ is different as entrepreneurial and job dynamics have been reshaped under online practices. This paper outlines the structure and curricula of business education under ‘New Normal’ which reemphasizes overwhelming employment of technology in education and its management.

In business schools, curricula develop foundations of quality education and competitive skills. Accordingly, the study takes into account the stakeholders like students, faculty members, people from the corporate sector, parents, government officials and members from the civil society. Despite having different views, the stakeholders agree to the need of adopting different approaches for quality business education under ‘New Normal’.

Brand positioning strategies and their effectiveness: a case of high street fashion retail brands in Pakistan

Saad Shahid

Lahore School of Economics, Lahore, Pakistan


Brand positioning has been acknowledged by practitioners and academics to be an important element of brand management. Firstly, this study aims to investigate the relationship between three brand positioning strategies (benefit brand positioning strategy, feature brand positioning strategy and surrogate brand positioning strategy) and joint effect of the five dimensions of brand positioning effectiveness, namely, favourability, dissimilarity, uniqueness, credibility, and sustainability. Secondly, this study investigates the separate relationship between the three brand positioning strategies and the five dimensions of brand positioning effectiveness in the case of high street fashion apparel retail brands. To empirically test the proposed framework adapted measurement scales were used. Data from 607 young consumers in Pakistan were collected. Empirical findings confirm that benefit brand positioning strategy and surrogate brand positioning strategy have a greater effect on brand positioning effectiveness. However, a significant positive relationship was found between all three brand positioning strategies and brand positioning effectiveness. These findings also indicate varied yet insightful relationships between brand positioning strategies and five dimensions of brand positioning effectiveness. Marketers can benefit from these findings as a means to understand brand positioning strategies from a consumers’ perspective thereby making use of these results in articulating branding strategies as a way to generate and communicate a distinctive competitive perception for their brands.  

Effects of covid-19 pandemic on marketing agriculture produce in Nigeria

Avanenge Faajir and Dennis Ayaga

Anthonia Uloko Department of Business Management Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria


This study examines the effect of Covid-19 pandemic on marketing agriculture produce in Nigeria. The research was driven by four objectives. The study sought to establish relationship between Covid-19 pandemic and marketing agriculture produce variables associated with supply chain. The qualitative approach was adopted for the study, relevant concept and empirical literatures were reviewed and it was revealed that Covid-19 pandemic brought about disruption in the Nigerian agriculture produce supply chain along each segment of the supply chain ranging from production, processing, distribution, retailing to consumption. It was recommended among others that, Federal government should mobilize market access of specialized platforms and marketplaces for agriculture produce (farmers) across Nigeria and facilitate the trend of agriculture produce supply chains during and after COVID–19 pandemic period, and Nigeria needs to practice trade policies in alliance with the neighbouring Nations that allow easy, for free or for not free, flow of agriculture produce across other countries.

The impact of covid-19 pandemic on sustainable consumption of luxury brands

David Clemson 1 and Tetyana Leleka2

Regent College London, UK 1

GCU London, UK2


          This study aims to understand how social practices of customers’ behaviour have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic period and how these changes will impact on the global sustainable consumption of luxury goods. The primary objective of the research is to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, when mortality salience is activated, on the intention to purchase sustainable luxury brands. In addition to this, we examine the relationship between the customers’ sustainable consumption of luxury brands, their environmental awareness and social mood in the pandemic crisis. This research provides interesting results which demonstrate the necessity of adopting sustainability as an added luxury value in the brand culture. This study helps to fill the knowledge gap about the sustainable luxury consumption in the period of COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this research have important implications for the expansion of current literature, theory development and business practices.    

          Through an empirical analysis carried out on a sample group, this research follows a quantitative approach through an online questionnaire, using data collected from 272 luxury and non-luxury consumers, representing two generational cohorts – Millennials (age 25-34) and Old Millennials (age 35-44).  

          The results indicated that there is a positive correlation between COVID-19 anxiety and self-esteem which in turn leads to the intention of sustainable consumption of luxury brands. Data also shows that sustainability concerns do not directly correlate to the intention of sustainable luxury consumption.

This original research puts forward a conceptual model taking into account the prevailing social mood with important implications for customers, luxury goods and environmental attitudes.

Consumer buying behaviour post and pre covid analysis- specific reference to South Africa

Ankit Katrodia

School of Management Sciences Northwest University, South Africa


This research focused on examining the motivational factors that determine the behaviour of consumers in pre and post pandemic times in South Africa by conducting a secondary literature study in the selected universe, with the aim of exploring the key factors in the changes of consumption in men and women, due to the situation of isolation caused by COVID 19. The economic factor referring to the consumption of basic necessities in consumer behaviour is a benchmark for marketing sanitary. Because cleaning, sanitizing and medicinal products have become part of the basic (emerging) consumption of men and women in South Africa. Likewise, the psychological factor, from an exercise and health perspective, is another important factor in times of pandemic. The news, health reports and statistics related to deaths from COVID-19 have had an impact on the population's awareness to take care of themselves and exercise; in Latin American countries with high statistics of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension (diseases related to vulnerability to the virus), which has modified consumption behaviour, not only in food, but also in products related to medicine, exercise, mental stability, and physical rest. Another factor is social, where online communication with family, friends and co-workers has influenced purchasing behaviour in the face of social isolation caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. The reduction or even elimination of face-to-face social gatherings has caused consumers to change their consumption behaviour on online platforms, e-commerce, and that it has been observed that in less than 6 months (which has not been achieved in the last 10 years), both men and women buy from basic products to luxury products through the telephone, social networks, web sites and apps.

Spending ackers on your values: The ethical consumerism beyond its current form

Sarat C Das

Bucks New University, UK Director (Research), C3S Business School, Spain


How consumerism comes to terms with ethics? Such discourse falls under the concept of ethical consumerism that can be traced to some form of consumer activism, where people came to know about the abuse of animals and children condemned to deplorable working conditions, or the large scale of damage inflicted on the environment (carbon footprint of a product). This form of political activism is based on the premise that buyers in markets consume not only goods but also, implicitly, the process used to produce them. Hence, the consumption is a political act that sanctions the values embodied in a product, like invisible and encrypted product information.

Today, in many cases the consumers are provided criteria-based ethical and environmental sustainability ratings which further influence the way ethical-sourcing-rated-commodities are traded in the market. Big ticket news agencies such as Bloomberg and Reuters provide "environmental, social, and governance" ratings directly to the financial data screens of teeming population of stock market traders. These consumers and traders are informed by the ethical reviews of the products that are quite wide ranging -- the media or watchdog or organization-controlled reviews to user-generated ethical reviews. The labelling and certification of these products sometimes help these reviews; some products are labelled in ways that indicate that they were produced in line with certain ethical values. For instance, a Kiwi may be labeled “Organic,”; a piece of textile may be labeled ‘’child labor free’’, a paper “100% Recycled,” etc.  

John McMurtry argues that all purchasing decisions imply some moral choice, and that there is no purchasing that is not ultimately moral in nature. Not all economists dealing with consumer science will concur with this. Further, there are always some trust criteria, e.g., creditworthiness or implied warranty, that are considered to be part of any purchasing or sourcing decision. However, these terms refer to broader systems of guidance that would, ideally, cause any purchasing decision to disqualify offered products or services based on non-price criteria that affect the moral rather than the functional liabilities of the entire production process. Paul Hawken, a proponent of natural capitalism, refers to "comprehensive outcomes" of production services as opposed to the "culminative outcomes" of using the product of such services. Often, moral criteria are part of a shift away from commodity markets towards a service economy where all activities, from growing to harvesting to processing to delivery, are considered part of the value chain for which consumers are "responsible". Since consumption related ethical concerns result from personal beliefs and societal influences, not from the law, it limits the legitimisation of regulators and related bodies to impose certain dimensions of ethical behaviour and whether consumer law is the appropriate mechanism to achieve such purposes. The research intends to locate the ethical consumerism under an overarching discourse of ethical consumption by adopting two approaches such as 'consequentialism' and 'deontology' in order to examine how these concepts can be appropriated to the questions of consumption. 

Employment challenges among adult male ex-offenders after incarceration: A conceptual analysis of social discrimination

Muhammad Kamran

Regent College London, UK


It is believed that the phenomenon of ex offender’s employment issue is one of the major challenges of the criminal judicial system. Imprisonment creates a set of experiences for adult male offenders as they often lose their jobs and discouraged from obtaining employment upon their release. This paper examines the phenomena of adult male ex-offender’s employment challenges after incarceration using a conceptual analysis. The paper also observes some major issues that are considered important when it comes to the analysis of social discrimination among adult male ex-offenders after incarceration. Whereas, previous research has mainly taken place within large and rehabilitation issues, it has ignored employment challenges as well as ex-prisoner societal rehabilitation issues (Petersilia, 2005).

Impact of managerial support on affective commitment: a sequential mediation

Maryam Rehmat 1, Ghulam Abid 2 and Alia Ahmed3

National College of Business Administration and Economics, Pakistan School of Business Administration, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan.1

School of Business Administration, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan2

School of Business Administration National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore, Pakistan3


The objective of this study is to study the impact of managerial support on affective commitment of employees at the workplace. This study also investigates the sequential mediation of prosocial motivation and collective thriving between managerial support and affective commitment. A cross-sectional questionnaire based primary study was conducted to collect data from 586 employees working in 76 teams in diverse sectors. The hypotheses were tested using the Model 6 of Process Hayes, direct and mediating effects between managerial support and affective commitment were tested. The results showed that managerial support has a significant positive relationship with mediator’s (i.e., prosocial mediation and collective thriving) and affective commitment. The results of the study depicted that organizational manager must demonstrate managerial support towards employees to accomplish the expected positive organizational outcomes. The impact of this positive attitude by managers is reciprocated by increased prosocial motivation, collective thriving, and affective commitment. Future research directions and practical implications have been discussed in the light of the study.

Effects of burnout, compensation, supportive college environment, training, and development on academic staff performance in Jigawa State College of Education Gumel, Nigeria

Zainab Inuwa Adamu

Department of Business Education (School of Secondary Education) Vocational and Technical Education, Jigawa State College of Education Jigawa State, Nigeria


Colleges of Education and other tertiary institutions like universities assume the role of training and producing teachers to teach in junior secondary schools and primary schools in Nigeria. The success or failure of any college of education depends very much on the ability of the institution to train and develop its staff into a productive, competent, and skilled work force which is capable of, and willing to work towards the realization of these objectives. Past studies have revealed that employee performance may be affected by factors such as training, burnout, organizational justice, compensation, and environmental support. Therefore, the current study examined the Influence of Job-Related Factors on the Performance of Academic Staff in Jigawa State College of Education, Gumel. A total of 159 academic staff participated in the research. A survey research design was used, and data were collected by using instruments adapted from past studies. The study employed partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using SPSS software. The results of the structural model showed that burnout, organizational justice, supportive college environment have significant negative effect on academic staff performance and Compensation and training and development have significant positive effect on academic staff performance in JSCOE Gumel. The study therefore recommended social intervention, training and development programs and fairness and justice should be exercised in organizational dealings.

The impact of motivational speech and life coaching on student motivation and performance

Nahrain Aoudishow

School of Business & Enterprise Regent College London, UK


The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of motivational speech and life coaching on student performance and motivation when used in educational settings. It explores and sheds light on an area often neglected in education and explores the fundamental importance of the educator using motivational speech and life coaching to influence and facilitate a positive response and reaction from the student, which increases motivation and overall performance by creating an emotional engagement that propels them forward by taking action. The paper identifies several research papers, motivational, learning, and psychological theories, which underpin the basis of the research conducted. The design of the study was longitudinal in nature and involved observing different student groups over a period of 12-15 weeks at a time over a period of 18 months from 2020-2022. The data collected was qualitative and was drawn from class sessions/discussion groups based on an average population size of 40 students of which 25 sample responses were collected. The findings from the data indicate that that there is a direct positive response to motivational speech and life coaching used with students in higher education, which has a direct impact on their personal, academic, and professional life. Based on the analysis of the responses it was found that students feel that an environment of support is created whereby they are able to feel inspired and driven towards attaining their life goals.

Restricted benefits of globalization

Rakesh Kumar Arya and Urvashi Sharma

Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies, India


Globalization word sounds as if each country is a part of the global village. The countries are forced to integrate with the global economy once they have given up command economy. The market-led-led economy has to be globalized to take advantage of the free movement of factors of production, technology, patents, design etc. The closed economies could not succeed in overcoming backwardness. Therefore, what was conceived in Bretton Wood slowly continued to gain acknowledgment. Finally, even though each country wanted to be communist at one stage, they saw better progress in globalization After remaining behyond the realm of, the countries had to fall in line. Globalization placed a condition that there will be excessive use of capital and labor if the two-way flow of goods and money happens. This is the reason that China grew up at the strength of work. But getting productivity from labor is not an easy task. In case it fails to deliver the output, the country's progress remains underachieved. Poverty and unemployment are still serious issues in India because labor could not be treated fairly. Therefore, advanced countries continue to enjoy the capital eco system in which education is also capitalized.

An analysis into the causes of the dotcom bubble and the us housing crash of 2007: Is the FED orchestrating the next “financial superbubble”?

Pellegrino Manfra

City University New York


The start of the 21st century has proven to be an economically tumultuous one as we started with two devastating financial crises: the DotCom Bubble in 2000 and the US Housing Crash of 2007 The article examines the causes associated with the formation of the 2000 bubble as well as the 2007 housing crisis. There is evidence that the FED (Federal Reserve System) with its reckless monetary policy was responsible for both crisis – will the FED trigger the next crisis? This research will explore the dynamic and the possibility of the next financial crisis. First, we analyze the dot com bubble in 2000. It was the high-tech startup, and the result was overpriced internet companies with inflated stock valuesThe actions of the FED during the mid-1990s played a significant role in exacerbating the dotcom craze, specifically by lowering interest rates and thus incentivizing more borrowing by tech start-ups, as well as significantly lowering capital-gains tax rates.  When the bubble popped in 2000 people lost billions. The FED lowered the interest rate to unexpected point that caused the next crisis. From the dot com bubble, we went to the real estate financial bubble of 2007. The 2007 crisis was the worst crisis since the Great Depression of 1929. People believed If stocks were ephemeral than investment in brick and mortar real

estate was a sure investment. But the real estate bubble popped in 2007 like the dot com bubble, and now we are ready for next bubble. Currently we are deliberately formulating a new bubble based on easy money and Quantitative Easing (QE) by the FED that is been driving up commodity and stock prices. Many have sustained that if the the dollar is losing its value than cryptocurrency is a sure bet. Well as of date crypto has lost over 60% of its value and more than $2 trillion lost in market value. Clearly, we went in a market from the to the real estate bubble to the cryptocurrency and other overpriced stock prices in 2022.This is perhaps the most insidious bubble of all. When this bubble bursts, as all bubbles do sooner or later, there will be little value on the ground as with the dot com and housing bubbles. This will be a an historic “superbubble”.

A comprehensive model for factors affecting the usage of computer‑assisted auditing tools and techniques

Ola Mohamed Shawky Eissa

Accounting department Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration Future University in Egypt


The paper aims to highlight the most important factors affecting using computerassisted auditing tools and techniques with special attention given to three levels covering these factors: environmental level, audit firm level, and individual level. This requires two steps. The first one is to argue the models used in the adoption and implementation of technology. The second step is to review the academic literature on auditing that examine the factors affecting the usage of computerassisted auditing tools and techniques. The researcher has presented a conceptual framework for a comprehensive understanding of factors affecting using computerassisted auditing tools and techniques which is a benefit for professional bodies and audit firms as well as researchers.

Restructuring in the global aerospace sector: understanding the changing skills, high-performance working, and Human Resource Management

Chris Forde 1, Ian Greenwood 1, Jonathan Winterton 1, Nafisat Olabisi 2 and Andrew Shires3

Centre for Employment Relations Innovation and Change University of Leeds, United Kingdom1

Leeds University Business School, UK2

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, United Kingdom3


In this paper we examine restructuring in the civilian airline sector. The context of the COVID-19 pandemic provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of the most significant shock the aerospace sector has ever experienced. We explore the change and continuities in skill formation, high performance working and HRM in the sector.  Drawing on analysis of industry reports, academic papers, and data from 8 in-depth interviews conducted with industry stakeholders, including government, trade unions, employers, academic experts, and aerospace sector organisations, conducted during 2021 and 202, we look at the implications of restructuring for high performance working, skill formation and HRM in the sector.  We present a new heuristic model of restructuring for aerospace as a device for understanding restructuring dynamics in the sector.

Region-wise spillover effects from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Emerging Markets: Evidenced from India

Lalajike Vishwanath Sadanand

Regent College London, UK


Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is considered as a key element in the industrial development of a nation. It brings capital inflow and contributes to the development of technology, managerial skills, and domestic firms. Multinational corporations (MNCs) possess superior knowledge, patents, trademarks, and exclusive technology which “spillover” to the host economy and benefit the domestic firms. Using a sample of inward FDI data from India, the empirical findings from a Pooled Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression indicate that equity inflow of FDI positively augments the regional Gross Domestic Product (GSDP). In addition, the industrial linkages have a positive impact on sectoral development; however, the impact of taxation is negative. Moreover, when we change the specification of our model by using the Limited Information Maximum Likelihood (LIML) regression with an instrument, we find that   sustained economy like India has uneven distribution of FDI inflows and serves as a very good example of proximity concentration, intra-regional openness, and agglomerations. A decrease in geographic distance of 5.5 km from the regional headquarters increases the FDI inflow by approximately USD1Mil. We also find that the market size, infrastructure, and labour conditions are key attributes in the spatial distribution of FDI inflow. Furthermore, we use a textual analysis framework with the news articles from Factiva database on the FDI policy. The Key Research Index conveys periodic changes in policy framework from the perspective of the investments in the early years, the growth of the FDI in the retail sector and the various sectoral benefits received from the FDI policies. The empirical findings strongly corroborate with the argument that industrial linkages between foreign and domestic firms aids industry agglomerations and spillovers to the host economy. Our findings emphasise that lowering of taxes to encourage FDI is a major driver to stimulate regional attractiveness and it augments the revenues collected through taxes. In other words, the policy environment provides a breeding ground for flourishing of enterprises and thereby benefits the local economy and a decrease in geographical distance increases inflow of FDI. The quintessential findings from this research contributes to highlighting key recommendations for the policy makers and to the existing literature on spatial distribution of FDI Inflows and their spillovers in Emerging economies.

Sustainable development imperatives and poverty alleviation initiatives: A cross country evidence

Ujunwa C. Enemuo 1 and Patrick L. Akpan2

Department of Management Technology Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria1

Department of Business Management Faculty of Business Administration University of Uyo, Nigeria2


Sustainable development imperatives and global commitment demonstrated by United Nation member countries have remained a matter of public disquiet in recent times. Tackling the constraints confronting these member countries particularly in the angle of human existence and astronomical incidence of poverty deserves strategic direction and attention. Thus, sustainable development goals seek to improve on the provisions of millennium goals and complete what could not be achieved. This paper therefore examines the imperatives of sustainable development and Poverty Alleviation initiatives in selected countries capable of eradicating extreme poverty and stimulating strategic growth in the countries studied. The strategic direction of achieving poverty reduction in selected countries form the beckon stone of this study. In recognition of the constraints associated with this therefore and the attendant plagues, this paper serves as a report of investigation of the impact of sustainable development targets on poverty alleviation in selected countries. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique is adopted in the methodology and the result reveals positive relationship between the variable measured and poverty alleviation. The study advocates vigorous initiatives towards eradication of hunger and poverty in the targeted countries in consideration of their peculiarities. A negation of the initiatives the paper argues renders the sustainable development efforts and goals a mirage. The converse also holds.

New evidence on financial statement disclosures of cybersecurity risks made in regulatory filings by U.S. commercial banks

A. J. Stagliano

Saint Joseph’s University, Philadelphia, USA


Swift adaptation of digital technology for financial transactions has led to a new avenue for exploitation by “white-collar” villains: cybercrime. High-tech crooks pose a significant security menace in the corporate arena. Computer interconnectivity has revolutionized the way organizations communicate and conduct business. It also has enabled a dramatic rise in criminal activity that manipulates digital functionality to garner illicit gains.

This research documents a longitudinal study that examined how certain publicly owned firms have responded to recent calls for increased disclosure about the financial impacts of cybercrime. It reports a finding of very minimal enhancement of disclosure in financial statements during the past decade.

The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a major study of cybercrime. The GAO stated that cyber threats posed a significant danger of negative economic impacts that ranged into the hundreds of billions of U.S. dollars annually. Recognizing that affected entities face a plethora of challenges in addressing cybercrime, this agency’s conclusion was that the precise cost of cybercrime is unknown because the occurrence is so rarely disclosed/reported by those impacted.

The U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation asked the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to consider issuing guidance to registrants regarding their responsibility to disclose data on information security risks, including material computer network breaches and other malicious cybercrime attacks. The SEC’s Division of Corporate Finance, moving with unusual dispatch, issued specific cybersecurity disclosure guidance late in 2011.  Reporting on this matter is not mandated unless significant, material financial losses occurred as a consequence of data leakage or security breaches.  The most significant financial element connected with the threat of cybercrime is the risk these incidents have on company operations and the firm's financial results. According to the SEC, successful cybercrime attacks create substantial economic costs and other negative consequences.  Such untoward outcomes include outlays for remediation, increased cybersecurity protection expenditures, lost revenues, litigation threats, and reputational damage.

This study examines whether firms in the U.S. commercial banking industry—a potential target for cyber-attacks—disclose their assessment of cybercrime risks to stakeholders in annual reports filed with the SEC. Data for years 2008 through 2020 were gathered from Form 10-K filings for all publicly traded banks with 2007 deposits that exceeded one billion USD. This sample group includes banks that accounted for more than half of the total 2020 U.S. commercial deposits. All the firms included in this study have a fiscal period based on the calendar year and would have known about the SEC guidance for cybersecurity risk disclosure starting with financial reporting for year 2011. The years prior to the SEC action (i.e., 2008-10) are included as part of the analysis so that an assessment can be made regarding the impact of the SEC guidance announcement.

This research makes a contribution to our understanding of how firms react to non-mandated disclosure guidance that is promulgated by the SEC.  Since financial markets are well known to impound decision-relevant information in an efficient manner, cybercrime risk assessments provided by management in publicly available venues like Form 10-K should assist investors in making economically rational trading decisions.  The outcomes of this study help us understand the impact that SEC reporting guidance has on the voluntary disclosure posture of registrants.

Antecedents of “trust and perceived usefulness” and their effect on continuance intention of mobile payment platforms: a mediation and moderation study from Pakistan

Ayesha Jamal, Sohail Zafar

Department of Business Administration, Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan


Purpose:  Further to Innovation Diffusion Theory and Technology Acceptance Models, this academic research determines how Trust and Perceived Usefulness of a Mobile Payment Platform affects the Continuance Intention of a customer. It uniquely contributes empirically, investigating two independent propositions.  In case one Mobility, Customization, Security and Reputation were tested as antecedents of Trust in Mobile Payment Platforms.  In the second case Mobility, Compatibility, Convenience and Reachability were tested as antecedents of Perceived Usefulness of Mobile Payment Platforms. The mediating effect of Trust and of Perceived Usefulness in relationships between all the Antecedents and Continuance Intention was investigated.  Additionally mediating effects of Perceived Risk and Perceived Ease of Use were tested with respect to Trust and Continuance Intention and Perceived Usefulness and Continuance Intention respectively.  Lastly, the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between respective antecedents and Trust, respective antecedents and Perceived Usefulness and moderation by gender in the relationship between Trust and Continuance Intention and moderation by gender in the relationship between Perceived Usefulness and Continuance Intention was investigated.

Study Design and Methodology: Data for the study were collected from 400 Mobile Payment Platform subscribers in Pakistan, all of them having used a Mobile Payment Platform of any Commercial Bank, Microfinance Bank, Telecommunication Company, or any other firm, at least once in their lifetime. Data were collected through an online survey using snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was floated on WhatsApp, Facebook, and Instagram; and respondents were requested to forward it to their contacts.  Structural Equation modeling was performed on the data with a Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Path Analysis, using the SmartPLS 3 software to test the regression relationships between latent constructs. Mediation was studied through Process Macro for SPSS and Moderation Analysis was carried out through Multi-Group Analysis on SmartPLS 3.

Findings:  Twenty-two Research Questions were constructed and tested. The statistical analysis reveals that in Pakistan Trust acts as complementary mediator between antecedents (Mobility, Customization, Security and Reputation) and Continuance Intention. Also Perceived Usefulness was found as a significant mediator between Mobility, Compatibility, Convenience and Reachability and Continuance Intention respectively. The analysis also found that Trust and Perceived Usefulness exert a direct positive impact on Continuance Intention. Additionally Perceived Ease of Use serves as a mediator between Perceived Usefulness and Continuance Intention, whereas Perceived Risk did not mediate between Trust and Continuance Intention.

 The moderation effects of gender reported an impact on Customization, Security, Reputation and Convenience; whereby for the former two variables the impact was higher on female customers whereas for the latter two the impact was higher on male customers. Also, female respondents showed a greater likelihood towards Trust whereas male respondents depicted a greater impact towards Perceived Usefulness.

Managerial/Social implications: The study reports useful insights for the marketers in developing comprehensive and persuasive integrative marketing communications aimed at the Mobile Payment Platform users. The policy makers in specific and the society in general, need to focus on developing more Trust and Usefulness based strategies that focus on Customization, Reputation, Security, Convenience and Compatibility; and all strategies must highlight the gender preferences identified in the findings of this study.

Investigating the role of diversity and inclusion strategy in managing group conflicts in the workplace

Ane Mary Xavier and Yehia Sabri Nawar

London South Bank University, UK


Two of the most pertinent issues that modern businesses are facing these days while managing group conflicts are diversity and inclusion. Due to the extensive impacts of globalisation, businesses are bound to address the issues related to diversity and inclusion to be able to address issues that contribute to group conflicts. Hence, it has become of paramount importance to focus on integrating diversity in managing group conflicts is largely globalised and heterogeneous workforces of the modern world. The aim of this research is to present a thorough analysis of the integration of diversity in managing team conflicts. In addition, to analyse how diversity integration might contribute to managing team conflicts. Moreover, this research also aims to demonstrate an in-depth discussion of diversity and inclusion to focus on how diversity might contribute to managing group conflicts.

The collected data from the semi-structured interviews and the assorted secondary data had been presented and the findings had been analysed in relation to the aim of the research. It is also evident from the semi-structured interview that lack of acceptance is also one of the major reasons behind affecting individual diversity and inclusion in the workplace. Diverse workspaces are more likely to incorporate high emotional involvement and tension leading to a greater discordance. Intergroup conflicts also become vivid in the incompatibilities existing in diverse goals and interests of people. On the other hand, conflict is equally likely to develop frustration, annoyance, tension, infuriation, and distrust within a diverse workforce. These intergroup conflicts are interconnected and correlated with each other.

Training and development in the UK context: A strategy perspective the case of the UK Higher Education

Iqra Asghar and Yehia Sabri Nawar

London South Bank University, UK


The covid-19 pandemic has disrupted teaching in a variety of sectors especially in education. In many countries including UK, the traditional face to face learning was suspended to ensure the safety of students and lecturers. To minimize the impact of lockdown on the education, the institutes referred to the modern E-learning. The research’s aim is to highlight the importance of training & development by considering the covid-19 impact in mind. There are three main challenges that were found. First, is to ensure that the necessary resources, policies, and remedial programs are put in place to make-up for the learning loss of socially disadvantaged children and young people, as well as to provide their families with the necessary support (Reimers & Schleicher, 2020). The second challenge is also an opportunity, it is to adopt policies and programs to improve the overall online teaching provision of schools and higher education institutions. Third, is very important which refers to adopting policies and programs to support teachers and schools of higher education and institutions facing the new challenges of distance teaching and teaching in the context of the health crisis. The recommendations that were given to overcome these were: Improve internet infrastructure and ensure affordable connectivity. To invest in developing and maintaining easy access to distance learning platforms and learning spaces. To strengthen systems for the validation and recognition of all forms of learning. To adapt to the changing situation in the economy, the labor market and society at large in a timely manner and train young people and adults to meet current and future skills needs.

The paradox of consumer choice and bounded rationality: Emerging discourses

Sarat C Das

Director (Research), C3S Business School, Spain Chief Mentor, Aspire Business School, Spain


Since consumer consumption is restricted by budget constraint, which represents all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase at given current prices within a restricted income, the notion of free will seems to be tethered to the ‘’preferences to consumption expenditures’’ and ‘’consumer demand curves’’. Is this tethered free will be similar to a bounded rationality (limited when individuals make decisions), i.e., consumers' preferences determined by changes in outcomes relative to a certain reference level"? The line of enquiry brings forth the question: Is bounded rationality in relation to consumer choice a departure from free will (humans do not undertake a full cost-benefit analysis to determine the optimal decision, but rather, choose an option that fulfils their adequacy criteria)?

These series of questions lead to study the nomology of mind, the branch of science and philosophy concerned with the laws or principles governing the thought processes and operation of the mind. Such a thought process is defined by custom or culture, influencing consumer choice that relates preferences to consumption expenditures, i.e, the way it analyzes how consumers maximize the desirability of their consumption as measured by their preferences subject to limitations on their expenditures, by maximizing utility subject to a consumer budget constraint.

Evolution endowed consumers with a new form of action control, commonly understood as freewill, which complexity and flexibility are suited to the distinctively human forms of social life in culture, with its abstract rules, expanded time span, diverse interdependent roles, and other sources of opportunities and constraints. Such consumer actions are expressions of self-control, planful action, and rational choice, etc. The research does not shy away from the ontological question of whether free will exists but rather intends to examine consumer's belief in such a concept. Maybe the belief arises from customers' phenomenological experience of exercising self-control in the face of moral or inter-temporal conflicts of will.

This research intends to shape a discourse on consumer choice, not necessarily restricted to some from neural response to a phenomenon originating at amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, firing through C fibers and the limbic system, hence, arguing for upholding the neuroscience's notion of freedom (negates the conscious control of the start of the action). As the utility maximization problem poses the optimal decision problem -- how much of each available good or service to consume, taking into account a constraint on total spending (income), the prices of the goods and their preferences – it leads to the discourse of free will that connects to the concepts of advice, persuasion, deliberation, and prohibition. The research paper too argues that the understanding free cannot sidestep the metaphysical and theological debates and purely be based on behavioral science.

Consumption functions of India: Do they differ across states for rural and urban households

Keshab Bhattarai1, Asha Prasuna 2 and S.N.V. Siva Kumar2

University of Hull, Business School, UK1

Department of Economics, K J Somaiya Institute of Management Somaiya Vidyavihar University, Mumbai, India2


Consumption is essential for living for every individual. Better consumption if the most important economic goal of every individual either from a rich or a poor household or whether they are located in urban or rural areas. Huge body of theoretical and empirical literature explains how micro and macro-economic factors determine the level, growth, and distribution of consumption among cross sections at a time or over the years or among generations. Distilled from seminar works Keynes (1936), Ando and Modigliani (1963) and Brumberg and Modigliani (1954), Samuelson (1958)  Deaton (1972, 2008 and 2021), Banerjee, Duflo  and Sharma (2021) and many other studies  seven theories of consumption made popular in the literature; the Keynesian absolute income hypothesis for short run consumption, Kuznet’s estimates of long run APC and Friedman’s permanent income hypothesis, life cycle and cross section consumption, precautionary theory of consumption saving and investment, inequalities in wages, income and consumption, overlapping generation and  general equilibrium theory consumption. Shocks such as COVID-19 global pandemic seriously affected these consumption measures of individuals in every part of the world. After short theoretical derivation of consumption function, we focus on empirical classical and Bayesian econometric time series and cross section estimations of consumption functions at the  macro national level and for households located in rural and urban areas across twenty eight states of India with time series data from World Economic Outlook database of the IMF for 1990-2025 and the household level data on total expenditure, total income, government transfer for 174,405 households in India from the CMIE for micro consumption functions. This analysis reasonably shows that the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is 49.8 percent in India from macro time series for 1990-2020, but it differs significantly at micro-Household levels.  Estimated MPCs for states are still positive and significant but a lot lower for states than for India in aggregate either to under-reporting of consumption or over statement of income levels. Urban areas had higher MPCs than rural areas at the national level and these rural urban differences in the MPCs are big across states. These differences can be further justified by the Bayesian analyses based on priors and likelihood functions provide posterior distribution of parameters of the consumption functions though there is possibility of under-reporting of consumption or over reporting of income after public transfers.